Faktor Psikologi dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa
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Faktor Psikologi dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa
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Dear the class D of English Department program.
The mid term test of Introduction to English Literature will be in Friday at 07.00 am. Don’t miss it!
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Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire
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INTRODUCTION
Learning is acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, preferences or understanding, or may involve synthesizing different type of information. To reach those goals, there are many way and technique that can be used in learning process. One of those techniques is cooperative and collaborative learning. This technique is a popular among of teacher.
Cooperative learning is a learning model in which the students work and learn together in the some small groups on the structured activity. Other opinion says that cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.
Cooperative learning takes place when the students work together in same place on a structured project in a small group. For example students in one class are divided in to some small groups, and they are given some questions to be answered. The student answer it together by discuss it each group.
Then collaborative learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together. Another definition says that collaborative learning is a method of teaching and learning in which student’s team work together to explore a significant question or create a meaningful project.
Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product. Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants talk among themselves. It is through the talk that learning occurs.
Collaborative learning take place in any times students work together not only in small group or same place but also in different group and place. For example students learn by share information with internet and Email or when they help each other in homework.
Research suggests that cooperative and collaborative learning bring positive results such as deeper understanding of content, increased overall achievement in grades, improved selfesteem, and higher motivation to remain on task. Cooperative learning helps students become actively and constructively involved in content, to take ownership of their own learning, and to resolve group conflicts and improve teamwork skills.
A. COOPERATIVE LEARNING
Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.
Cooperative efforts result in participants striving for mutual benefit so that all group members:
Some researches state that cooperative learning can promote student learning and academic achievement. In this case, cooperative learning method helps the students to work together in a team. All students in one team not only responsible in their assignment but also make all students in their group can understand what just they learn. In other word one students share her or his knowledge to each other. Therefore, by this method it will be able to promote students learning and academic achievement, because the students in each groups get more understanding in their learning process.
Cooperative learning also increases student’s retention. In cooperative learning students will solve some problems from the teacher by theme selves. It means that n cooperative learning students are trained to solve some problem and answer some questions by involving their selves in it. It will help the students to memorize well about they just learning. In other word, the students will be more understand if they get real experience in learning.
In addition, cooperative learning helps students develop skill in oral communication. Cooperative learning has a learning system that student will discuss the problem given by the teacher by discussing it with their friend in small group. Therefore, student will be more talk active in the learning process. Consequently, it will help the students to develop their skill in oral communication. Besides, the students will present their work in the front of their friends and teacher. In this section, the member of the each group will explain about what they have done. In other word the student should present the result of their work, so that their friends understand about their group material.
Besides, this method also develops student’s social skill. By using this method, indirectly the students will learn to make social connection in a small group on the structured activity. Therefore this method also help the teacher create a good race relation among the students. It means that students will have good relation by always discuss about something and do something together.
Generally, the benefits of this method can be seen at the table bellow:
No  Category  Benefits 
1  Help Students Learn 

2  Promote 

3  Encourage 

4  Produce 

5  Increase 

6  Help Students Develop 

7  Help Students Experience 

According to Kagan and Jigsaw the activities of learning in cooperative learning are follows:
In small groups, students can share strengths and also develop their weaker skills. They develop their interpersonal skills. They learn to deal with conflict. When cooperative groups are guided by clear objectives, students engage in numerous activities that improve their understanding of subjects explored.
B. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product. Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants talk among themselves. It is through the talk that learning occurs.
There are many approaches to collaborative learning:
Thus, in a collaborative learning setting, learners have the opportunity to converse with peers, present and defend ideas, exchange diverse beliefs, question other conceptual frameworks, and the students are actively engage.
The benefits of collaborative learning is the same like Cooperative Learning, it helps students to work together increase retention, develop students creativity, increase students skill in making decision and solving a problem, develop student social skills and others.
C. COOPERATIVE LEARNING VS COLLABURATIVE LEARNING
There are some different that are possessed by cooperative and collaborative learning. Those different can be seen at the table bellow:
COOPERATIVE LEARNING  COLLABORATIVE LEARNING 
Definition: Cooperative Learning is a learning model in which the students work and learn together in the some small groups on the structured activity.  Definition: Collaborative Learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together. 
Cooperative learning takes place when the students work together in same place on a structured project in a small group.  Collaborative learning take place in any times students work together not only in small group or same place but also in different group and place. 
Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. (U.S. Dept. of Ed. Office of Research, 1992)  Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants talk among themselves (Gerlach, 1994). It is through the talk that learning occurs. 
Each person is responsible for a portion of the work  Participants work together to solve a problem 
Many times the teacher already knows the problem and solution students will be working towards.  Many times teacher does not have a preset notion of the problem or solution that students will be researching. 
D. TEACHER’S ROLE
It has been said in the subchapter before that cooperative learning is a learning model in which the students work and learn together in the some small groups on the structured activity. Although in cooperative learning the students work together in a group to solve problem by discuss it them selves, but the role of the teacher not only give the students a task, assignment or order, but the teacher must guide the students also.
Teacher’s role in cooperative learning is to guide the student in order to get more understanding in working assignment, materials and others. Also, teacher helps students to develop the student’s social skill, student’s skill in solving problem, working in a group and student’s skill in oral communication. Beside, the teacher’s role is to promote student race interaction, higher self esteem, and acceptation of differences.
To raise those goals, teacher must do a structured activity in cooperative learning. The first thing that teacher must do is divide the students in to some small group, each group may consist of 4 or 5 students. The teacher may combine the smart students with the weaker students. The purpose is that the smart students will help teacher to teach the weaker students so that the weaker students will be more understand the topic that they are being discussed. The smaller group the students have the better result the students get. Then, give the students task, assignment, or may be a topic to be discussed by the students in each small group.
After the teacher gives the topic or assignment, the teacher give the students a few time about 3 or 5 minutes to think it by them selves individually. The purpose is the students will get some ideas about the topic that they will discus with their friends in the same small group. Then, after it’s done the teacher order the students to discus it with their group members.
When the students discus the assignment or topics that is given by the teacher, the teacher’s role is not only sit in her/ his seat, but the teacher must walk around the class to guide the group which have a problem in their work until the students can find the way out of their problem. Therefore, even the students work together in the group to finish their work, the teacher still accompany them to get more understanding and increase student’s skill. Consequently, the teacher already knows the problem and solution students will be working towards.
Bellow is an example of teacher role while he/ she in the speaking class using cooperative learning:
Teacher  :  Assalamualaikum, good morning my students! How ar you today? 
Students  :  Morning mr Ahmad, fine Alhamdulillah. 
Teacher  :  Good, let’s start our study today bay reading Basmallah.. 
Students  :  Bismillahirahmanirahiim 
Teacher  :  Students, today our topic is house. To do this topic I want you make a group in five students each group. But I will divide the group by my self. (you may divide the group by your self or lets your students make it by them selves) 
Students  :  Okay mr. 
Teacher  :  (Start dividing) group 1, Andi, Lisa, Khoir, Iwan, and Tika. Group Two Hendra, Putra, Tiwi, Nisa, and Rahma, Group three.. group four and so on. 
Students  :  Yes sir.. 
Teacher  :  Now find your group members, and make circle position in each group! 
Five minutes later.  
Teacher  :  Have you found your group? 
Students  :  Yes we have, sir. 
Teacher  :  Now, if you have found your group, I want you discuss these question with your friends in a group. Remember that now you are a team, you must do the task together and don’t do it individually, but do it together with your team. I mean that if you are cleaver help your friends in a group who find the difficulties in their work. If Here, I want you chose your leader in each group.
I must remind you something, that if your group has no way to find the way out you can also learn it to others group and back to your real group or you can raise your hand and ask me to help your problem. Understand? 
Students  :  Yes sir. 
Teacher  :  Now I want you discuss this question and present it after you finish your work. I give you 30 minutes to discuss it. 
Students  :  Yes sir. 
Teacher  :  The question are:
Make a dialogue while you are talking about house interior decoration. You will carry out a telephone conversation between the designer and client. And when the designer comes to the client house you will carry out a conversation between client, designer, 2 assistant designers, and the daughter or the client.
Your task is to make dialogue text between those character and discuss it what will they talking about in the telephone, and while in the house.
Please use a good sentence expression in your text, and present it well. The better your expression in your text and your presentation the better result will you get.
Now I give you five minutes to think it individually before you discuss it with your group members.
Have you done with it?

Students  :  Yes sir, we have 
Teacher  :  Now, I give 30 minutes to discuss it with your friend and 20 minutes to write it in the text form. Don be forget to use a good expression in both of your text and presentation.
And if you have a problem in making good expression, you can ask a question to me or your group members or maybe from other group. 
While the students work their assignment, the teacher must walk around the class to find the group which has some problem in their work. It can be done by making correction to the students work in each group. Example:
May I check your work? Do you have a problem in it? If the students posse a problem in their work, you as the teacher should give them guidance for them to get the way out. Bellow is the example of teacher role while the groups are finish on their work. 

Teacher  :  Now please collect your work, and for the leader of the group comes to the front of the class to collect your group work.
After they collect it you must ask them to present it in the front of the class randomly. And you decide the student’s character randomly also. Now I am calling the group three to present their work, we have Andi as the designer, iwan and anwar as assistances of designer, septi as the client, and Lastri as the daughter of the client.

While the students have finished their presentation, you must evaluate their work and teach them how to make a good expression in sentence (according to the topic that is being discussed). 
It is similar with cooperative learning; the teacher divides the students in to some groups. Each group has their own topics. It means that the teacher not only divide the group but also the topic of each group. But it is still different with Cooperative Learning. Collaborative learning is take place in the larger part than cooperative learning. The teacher not only guides one small group but all groups together. It is usually done after the students make a discussion about one topic that has been presented by one of the group in the class. In this discussion the teacher has function to make a correction if the student’s discussion is found some mistakes. But in this case the teacher doesn’t know how the students acquire new knowledge, and some information for them to solve a problem that teacher has given for them. Bellow is the example of what teacher does in the class that uses collaborative learning:
Teacher  :  Students, today I will divide you in to some small groups, and each group will have different topic.
The first group is Lina, Andi, Listi and Mukmin, your topic is about eclectic approach. The second group is azis, Iwan, Hendra, Agus, your topic is about cooperative learning. And so on.
You may find your topic from any sources. It is free for you to get your material from any sources. You can find it in the book or in the web or share with your friend abut your material. Or if you find some difficulties and you cannot answer it, I will help you to answer it. And next week we will star our discussion 
REFERENCES
http://www.studygs.net/cooplearn.htm
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/coopcollab/index.html
http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperativelearning.htm
http://www.tammypayton.net/courses/collab/what.shtml
Jack J Richard and Teodhore S Rodgers. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Pers. No year..
Kagan, Spencer. Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing, 1994. http://www.kaganonline.com/
Kari Miller, MALS. Collaborative and Cooperative Learning for Better Motivation and Retention. Universidad San Francisco de Quito. Primer Congreso sobre Bilingüismo y Multilingüismo. . 2009.
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