COOPERATIVE DAN COLLABORATIVE LEARNING

INTRODUCTION

Learning is acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, preferences or understanding, or may involve synthesizing different type of information. To reach those goals, there are many way and technique that can be used in learning process. One of those techniques is cooperative and collaborative learning. This technique is a popular among of teacher.

Cooperative learning is a learning model in which the students work and learn together in the some small groups on the structured activity. Other opinion says that cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.

Cooperative learning takes place when the students work together in same place on a structured project in a small group. For example students in one class are divided in to some small groups, and they are given some questions to be answered. The student answer it together by discuss it each group.

Then collaborative learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together. Another definition says that collaborative learning is a method of teaching and learning in which student’s team work together to explore a significant question or create a meaningful project.

Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product. Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants talk among themselves. It is through the talk that learning occurs.

Collaborative learning take place in any times students work together not only in small group or same place but also in different group and place. For example students learn by share information with internet and E-mail or when they help each other in homework.

Research suggests that cooperative and collaborative learning bring positive results such as deeper understanding of content, increased overall achievement in grades, improved self-esteem, and higher motivation to remain on task. Cooperative learning helps students become actively and constructively involved in content, to take ownership of their own learning, and to resolve group conflicts and improve teamwork skills.

A. COOPERATIVE LEARNING

Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.

Cooperative efforts result in participants striving for mutual benefit so that all group members:

  1. Gain from each other’s efforts. (Your success benefits me and my success benefits you.);
  2. Recognize that all group members share a common fate. (We all sink or swim together here.);
  3. Know that one’s performance is mutually caused by oneself and one’s team members. (We can not do it without you.);
  4. Feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member is recognized for achievement. (We all congratulate you on your accomplishment!).
  1. 1. Why Use Cooperative Learning?

Some researches state that cooperative learning can promote student learning and academic achievement. In this case, cooperative learning method helps the students to work together in a team. All students in one team not only responsible in their assignment but also make all students in their group can understand what just they learn. In other word one students share her or his knowledge to each other. Therefore, by this method it will be able to promote students learning and academic achievement, because the students in each groups get more understanding in their learning process.

Cooperative learning also increases student’s retention. In cooperative learning students will solve some problems from the teacher by theme selves. It means that n cooperative learning students are trained to solve some problem and answer some questions by involving their selves in it. It will help the students to memorize well about they just learning. In other word, the students will be more understand if they get real experience in learning.

In addition, cooperative learning helps students develop skill in oral communication. Cooperative learning has a learning system that student will discuss the problem given by the teacher by discussing it with their friend in small group. Therefore, student will be more talk active in the learning process. Consequently, it will help the students to develop their skill in oral communication. Besides, the students will present their work in the front of their friends and teacher. In this section, the member of the each group will explain about what they have done. In other word the student should present the result of their work, so that their friends understand about their group material.

Besides, this method also develops student’s social skill. By using this method, indirectly the students will learn to make social connection in a small group on the structured activity. Therefore this method also help the teacher create a good race relation among the students. It means that students will have good relation by always discuss about something and do something together.

Generally, the benefits of this method can be seen at the table bellow:

No Category Benefits
1 Help Students Learn
  • Responsibility
  • To work together
  • To respect their class mate and other
  • To process skill needed for working in group
2 Promote
  • Higher self esteem
  • Acceptance of differences
3 Encourage
  • Creativity and problem solving
4 Produce
  • Higher Achievement
5 Increase
  • Retention
6 Help Students Develop
  • Interpersonal skill
  • Their own identities
  • Their own abilities
7 Help Students Experience
  • Motivation
  • Success
  1. 2. Five Elements of Cooperative Learning

  1. Positive Interdependence (Sink or Swim Together)
  • Each group member’s efforts are required and indispensable for group success
  • Each group member has a unique contribution to make to the joint effort because of his or her resources and/or role and task responsibilities.
  1. Face to Face Interaction (Promote Each Other’s Success)
  • Orally explaining how to solve problems
  • Teaching one’s knowledge to other
  • Checking for understanding
  • Discussing concepts being learned
  • Connecting present with past learning.
  1. Individual and Group Accountability (No Hitching and No Social Loafing)
  • Keeping the size of the group small. The smaller the size of the group, the greater the individual accountability may be.
  • Giving an individual test to each student.
  • Randomly examining students orally by calling on one student to present his or her group’s work to the teacher (in the presence of the group) or to the entire class.
  • Observing each group and recording the frequency with which each member-contributes to the group’s work.
  • Assigning one student in each group the role of checker. The checker asks other group members to explain the reasoning and rationale underlying group answers.
  • Having students teach what they learned to someone else.
  1. Inter-personal and Small-group Skill
  • Social skills must be taught:
    • Leadership
    • Decision-making
    • Trust-building
    • Communication
    • Conflict-management skills
  1. Group Processing
  • Group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationships
  • Describe what member actions are helpful and not helpful
  • Make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change

  1. 3. Class Activities that Use Cooperative Learning

According to Kagan and Jigsaw the activities of learning in cooperative learning are follows:

  1. Groups with five students are set up. Each group member is assigned some unique material to learn and then to teach to his group members. To help in the learning students across the class working on the same sub-section get together to decide what is important and how to teach it. After practice in these “expert” groups the original group reform and students teach each other. Tests or assessment follows.

In small groups, students can share strengths and also develop their weaker skills. They develop their interpersonal skills. They learn to deal with conflict. When cooperative groups are guided by clear objectives, students engage in numerous activities that improve their understanding of subjects explored.

  1. Think-Pair-Share – Involves a three step cooperative structure. During the first step individuals think silently about a question posed by the instructor. Individuals pair up during the second step and exchange thoughts. In the third step, the pairs share their responses with other pairs, other teams, or the entire group.
  2. Three-Step Interview – Each member of a team chooses another member to be a partner. During the first step individuals interview their partners by asking clarifying questions. During the second step partners reverse the roles. For the final step, members share their partner’s response with the team.
  3. Brainstorming – Class is divided into small groups (4 to 6) with one person appointed as the recorder. A question is posed with many answers and students are given time to think about answers. After the “think time,” members of the team share responses with one another round robin style. The recorder writes down the answers of the group members. The person next to the recorder starts and each person in the group in order gives an answer until time is called.
  4. Three-minute review – Teachers stop any time during a lecture or discussion and give teams three minutes to review what has been said, ask clarifying questions or answer questions.
  5. Numbered Heads Together – A team of four is established. Each member is given numbers of 1, 2, 3, 4. Questions are asked of the group. Groups work together to answer the question so that all can verbally answer the question. Teacher calls out a number (two) and each two is asked to give the answer.
  6. Team Pair Solo – Students do problems first as a team, then with a partner, and finally on their own. It is designed to motivate students to tackle and succeed at problems which initially are beyond their ability. It is based on a simple notion of mediated learning. Students can do more things with help (mediation) than they can do alone. By allowing them to work on problems they could not do alone, first as a team and then with a partner, they progress to a point they can do alone that which at first they could do only with help.
  7. Circle the Sage – First the teacher polls the class to see which students have a special knowledge to share. For example the teacher may ask who in the class was able to solve a difficult math homework question, who had visited Mexico, who knows the chemical reactions involved in how salting the streets help dissipate snow. Those students (the sages) stand and spread out in the room. The teacher then has the rest of the classmates each surround a sage, with no two members of the same team going to the same sage. The sage explains what they know while the classmates listen, ask questions, and take notes. All students then return to their teams. Each in turn, explains what they learned. Because each one has gone to a different sage, they compare notes. If there is disagreement, they stand up as a team. Finally, the disagreements are aired and resolved.
  8. Partners – The class is divided into teams of four. Partners move to one side of the room. Half of each team is given an assignment to master to be able to teach the other half. Partners work to learn and can consult with other partners working on the same material. Teams go back together with each set of partners teaching the other set. Partners quiz and tutor teammates. Team reviews how well they learned and taught and how they might improve the process.
  9. In order to create an environment in which cooperative learning can take place, three things are necessary. First, students need to feel safe, but also challenged. Second, groups need to be small enough that everyone can contribute. Third, the task is worked by the students together on must be clearly defined.

B. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING

Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product. Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants talk among themselves. It is through the talk that learning occurs.

There are many approaches to collaborative learning:

  1. Learning is an active process whereby learners assimilate the information and relate this new knowledge to a framework of prior knowledge.
  2. Learning requires a challenge that opens the door for the learner to actively engage his/her peers, and to process and synthesize information rather than simply memorize and regurgitate it.
  3. Learners benefit when exposed to diverse viewpoints from people with varied backgrounds.
  4. Learning flourishes in a social environment where conversation between learners takes place. During this intellectual gymnastics, the learner creates a framework and meaning to the discourse.
  5. In the collaborative learning environment, the learners are challenged both socially and emotionally as they listen to different perspectives, and are required to articulate and defend their ideas. In so doing, the learners begin to create their own unique conceptual frameworks and not rely solely on an expert’s or a text’s framework.

Thus, in a collaborative learning setting, learners have the opportunity to converse with peers, present and defend ideas, exchange diverse beliefs, question other conceptual frameworks, and the students are actively engage.

The benefits of collaborative learning is the same like Cooperative Learning, it helps students to work together increase retention, develop students creativity, increase students skill in making decision and solving a problem, develop student social skills and others.

C. COOPERATIVE LEARNING VS COLLABURATIVE LEARNING

There are some different that are possessed by cooperative and collaborative learning. Those different can be seen at the table bellow:

COOPERATIVE LEARNING COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
Definition: Cooperative Learning is a learning model in which the students work and learn together in the some small groups on the structured activity. Definition: Collaborative Learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together.
Cooperative learning takes place when the students work together in same place on a structured project in a small group. Collaborative learning take place in any times students work together not only in small group or same place but also in different group and place.
Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. (U.S. Dept. of Ed. Office of Research, 1992) Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants talk among themselves (Gerlach, 1994). It is through the talk that learning occurs.
Each person is responsible for a portion of the work Participants work together to solve a problem
Many times the teacher already knows the problem and solution students will be working towards. Many times teacher does not have a pre-set notion of the problem or solution that students will be researching.

D. TEACHER’S ROLE

  1. Teacher’s Role in Cooperative Learning

It has been said in the sub-chapter before that cooperative learning is a learning model in which the students work and learn together in the some small groups on the structured activity. Although in cooperative learning the students work together in a group to solve problem by discuss it them selves, but the role of the teacher not only give the students a task, assignment or order, but the teacher must guide the students also.

Teacher’s role in cooperative learning is to guide the student in order to get more understanding in working assignment, materials and others. Also, teacher helps students to develop the student’s social skill, student’s skill in solving problem, working in a group and student’s skill in oral communication. Beside, the teacher’s role is to promote student race interaction, higher self esteem, and acceptation of differences.

To raise those goals, teacher must do a structured activity in cooperative learning. The first thing that teacher must do is divide the students in to some small group, each group may consist of 4 or 5 students. The teacher may combine the smart students with the weaker students. The purpose is that the smart students will help teacher to teach the weaker students so that the weaker students will be more understand the topic that they are being discussed. The smaller group the students have the better result the students get. Then, give the students task, assignment, or may be a topic to be discussed by the students in each small group.

After the teacher gives the topic or assignment, the teacher give the students a few time about 3 or 5 minutes to think it by them selves individually. The purpose is the students will get some ideas about the topic that they will discus with their friends in the same small group. Then, after it’s done the teacher order the students to discus it with their group members.

When the students discus the assignment or topics that is given by the teacher, the teacher’s role is not only sit in her/ his seat, but the teacher must walk around the class to guide the group which have a problem in their work until the students can find the way out of their problem. Therefore, even the students work together in the group to finish their work, the teacher still accompany them to get more understanding and increase student’s skill. Consequently, the teacher already knows the problem and solution students will be working towards.

Bellow is an example of teacher role while he/ she in the speaking class using cooperative learning:

Teacher : Assalamualaikum, good morning my students! How ar you today?
Students : Morning mr Ahmad, fine Alhamdulillah.
Teacher : Good, let’s start our study today bay reading Basmallah..
Students : Bismillahirahmanirahiim
Teacher : Students, today our topic is house. To do this topic I want you make a group in five students each group. But I will divide the group by my self. (you may divide the group by your self or lets your students make it by them selves)
Students : Okay mr.
Teacher : (Start dividing) group 1, Andi, Lisa, Khoir, Iwan, and Tika. Group Two Hendra, Putra, Tiwi, Nisa, and Rahma, Group three.. group four and so on.
Students : Yes sir..
Teacher : Now find your group members, and make circle position in each group!
Five minutes later.
Teacher : Have you found your group?
Students : Yes we have, sir.
Teacher : Now, if you have found your group, I want you discuss these question with your friends in a group. Remember that now you are a team, you must do the task together and don’t do it individually, but do it together with your team. I mean that if you are cleaver help your friends in a group who find the difficulties in their work. If   Here, I want you chose your leader in each group.  

I must remind you something, that if your group has no way to find the way out you can also learn it to others group and back to your real group or you can raise your hand and ask me to help your problem. Understand?

Students : Yes sir.
Teacher : Now I want you discuss this question and present it after you finish your work. I give you 30 minutes to discuss it.
Students : Yes sir.
Teacher : The question are: 

Make a dialogue while you are talking about house interior decoration. You will carry out a telephone conversation between the designer and client. And when the designer comes to the client house you will carry out a conversation between client, designer, 2 assistant designers, and the daughter or the client.

Your task is to make dialogue text between those character and discuss it what will they talking about in the telephone, and while in the house.

Please use a good sentence expression in your text, and present it well. The better your expression in your text and your presentation the better result will you get.

Now I give you five minutes to think it individually before you discuss it with your group members.

Have you done with it?

Students : Yes sir, we have
Teacher : Now, I give 30 minutes to discuss it with your friend and 20 minutes to write it in the text form. Don be forget to use a good expression in both of your text and presentation. 

And if you have a problem in making good expression, you can ask a question to me or your group members or maybe from other group.

While the students work their assignment, the teacher must walk around the class to find the group which has some problem in their work. It can be done by making correction to the students work in each group. Example: 

May I check your work? Do you have a problem in it?

If the students posse a problem in their work, you as the teacher should give them guidance for them to get the way out. Bellow is the example of teacher role while the groups are finish on their work.

Teacher : Now please collect your work, and for the leader of the group comes to the front of the class to collect your group work.  

After they collect it you must ask them to present it in the front of the class randomly. And you decide the student’s character randomly also.

Now I am calling the group three to present their work, we have Andi as the designer, iwan and anwar as assistances of designer, septi as the client, and Lastri as the daughter of the client.

While the students have finished their presentation, you must evaluate their work and teach them how to make a good expression in sentence (according to the topic that is being discussed).
  1. Teacher’s Role in Collaborative Learning

It is similar with cooperative learning; the teacher divides the students in to some groups. Each group has their own topics. It means that the teacher not only divide the group but also the topic of each group. But it is still different with Cooperative Learning. Collaborative learning is take place in the larger part than cooperative learning. The teacher not only guides one small group but all groups together. It is usually done after the students make a discussion about one topic that has been presented by one of the group in the class. In this discussion the teacher has function to make a correction if the student’s discussion is found some mistakes. But in this case the teacher doesn’t know how the students acquire new knowledge, and some information for them to solve a problem that teacher has given for them. Bellow is the example of what teacher does in the class that uses collaborative learning:

Teacher : Students, today I will divide you in to some small groups, and each group will have different topic. 

The first group is Lina, Andi, Listi and Mukmin, your topic is about eclectic approach. The second group is azis, Iwan, Hendra, Agus, your topic is about cooperative learning.

And so on.

You may find your topic from any sources. It is free for you to get your material from any sources. You can find it in the book or in the web or share with your friend abut your material. Or if you find some difficulties and you cannot answer it, I will help you to answer it.  And next week we will star our discussion

REFERENCES

http://www.studygs.net/cooplearn.htm

http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/coopcollab/index.html

http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperativelearning.htm

http://www.tammypayton.net/courses/collab/what.shtml

Jack J Richard and Teodhore S Rodgers. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Pers. No year..

Kagan, Spencer. Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing, 1994. http://www.kaganonline.com/

Kari Miller, MALS. Collaborative and Cooperative Learning for Better Motivation and Retention. Universidad San Francisco de Quito. Primer Congreso sobre Bilingüismo y Multilingüismo. . 2009.

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