Love: Angel and Evil

JOHNNY AND JENNY

Love: Angel and Evil

 

Today is the most beautiful day for Jenny. She has her first date with her boy friend, Johnny. Her heart was palpitating quickly she worried that her performed will look unwell in the Johnny eyes. She walked quickly to the place that they have promised. “Love River” it was how everyone called that place.

“I hope that I’m not late, I must hurry”

She arrived there early, she didn’t want to late in her first date and she didn’t want make Johnny waits if she came late.

“Huff it makes me tired”

 

But, what happened was different. She waited for along time there. She looked worry and no smile in her face. But she still tried to make her self calm. A half hour she waited for Johnny but he immediately didn’t come. Jenny thought that Johnny might forget his promise. But she still waited for him.

“I’m sure, he will come and he will give me a surprise”

“I know that He will never forget his promise”

 

What Jenny could do is only assured her self that Johnny would come to meet her immediately. And asked in her mind where Johnny was with tears streaming down her cheeks.

“Johnny.. Where are you? Do you forget your promise?”

 

Jenny didn’t know that Johnny was still in the school. She waited and still waited for Johnny’s coming.

 

In the school, Johnny had just finished his course. He actually forgot his promise to met Jenny at Love River. Johnny felt tired and he wanted to go home.

“How tired day today, huff”

“It is better for me to go home soon”

 

He took his bicycle in the parking area. He went home and rode his bicycle slowly. Suddenly, he remembered something and stopped his riding.

“Oh my good” Johnny said.

“God, help me please, please forgive me Jenny. I forgot my promise”

He became quite for awhile and though about Jenny. He looked confuse at that time.

“Oh my god, what was I do? I forgot it”

“Jenny please wait me, don’t make back to the drawing board”

 

Johnny rode his bicycle fast and fast. He was very worry that Jenny will leave him and forgot him. He rode it faster, and he was only able to hope that Jenny would forgive him.

“Jenny forgive me”

 

15 minutes later, Johnny arrived to the Love River. He looked around and looked for Jenny. Johnny was only able to cry because he didn’t find where Jenny is. He didn’t know that Jenny still waited for his coming. Johnny was only able to regret his mistake.

“God, will I loose her just because of my silly mistake? How stupid I am!”

 

Johnny walked very slowly. His eyes were locked on the ground. He didn’t say anything, he just ask where Jenny was in his mind.

“Jenny I am sorry, where are you?”

 

Suddenly, Johnny remembered something. He remembered that there was one place in the love river that he didn’t visit yet.

“Oh, I remembered. That place” Johnny said.

“I Must Hurry, may be Jenny waits me there”

Johnny then rode his bicycle faster and faster. Only three minutes he arrived there. When he went down from his bicycle, his eyes looked around the river. And he saw Jenny was sitting under a tree. Johnny was very delightful. Johnny then ran to the tree. When he came near to the tree, he suddenly shout Jenny’s name.

“Jenny!!!!!”

 

Hearing that sound, Jenny felt happy and vanished tears which flew down on her cheeks. Then Jenny stood up and shouted Johnny’s name.

“Johnny!!!!!!!!!!”

 

Known Jenny stood up in the front of him. Johnny then ran drawn near Jenny. And he embraced her tautly. He looked that she was crying. Then, he vanish her tears.

“Jenny, I am here, please stop crying”

“Why you are so long?” Jenny said.

“Darling, Please forgive me I didn’t mean to..”

“Didn’t mean to what?” Jenny asked.

“You forget your promise to me! You lie to me” Jenny was dripping her tears anymore.

“I didn’t forget my promise honey”

“But, why did you come late?” Jenny replied Johnny’s answer.

“But, the most important one is that I am here, beside you, with you”

“But?”

“Shhhh” Johnny cut jenny talk.

“Jenny, Listen to me. I don’t forget my promise. Come near darling. Let my heart warms your heart, come near to me. And let me embraces you tautly. And fell my honesty”

 

Hearing Johnny’s said she became quite for a while. And let Johnny embraced her body. She felt warm, and she started to feel that Johnny was not lie to her.

 

Johnny and Jenny then sat under a big beautiful tree. The leave of the tree were very green and beautiful. It seemed romantic atmosphere there. Jenny took his head on Johnny’s shoulder. She looked very delightful. It was because his boyfriend was beside of he. And he made her warm with his love.

“Johnny?”

“Yes honey” Johnny replied.

“Today is our first dating, and I am very happy”

“Why?” Johnny asked.

“It is because of you, you made your promise come true, and I am very happy”

“Hmm, so do I jenny”

“really?”

“yes of course, it is because I love you” Johnny said

“I love you too Johnny”

 

Known about this, Jenny asked a future of their relationship. Jenny was afraid that he would leave her. It was because she loved him very much and she didn’t want this relationship breakdown.

“Johnny, may I ask you something”

“Of course, what is that?” Johnny asked

“Hmm” Jenny felt confuse how to say it

“Jenny? Tell me please, what is that?” Johnny insisted Jenny to tell it.

“Hmm, it is not important to be asked, please forget it” Jenny said.

“No jenny, everything about us are important, please tell me what is it?”

“Really?” Jenny said

“Just tell it”

“Hmm, will you marry me Johnny?”

 

Johnny was shock with the question. He cannot answer this answer now, so that he only being quite without saying a word. He didn’t know how he should answer it. He loved Jenny so much. He didn’t want to loose her. But, he actually didn’t ready yet for marrying her.

“hmm”

“Will you marry me Johnny?” Jenny asked him again.

“Should I answer it now? jenny?”

“Yes Johnny, show me that you are really love me”

 

Johnny became quite, and he thought what he will answer. Finally Johnny decided to marry Jenny even he didn’t ready yet.

“Jenny, I promise you that I will marry you”

“Is it true?” Jenny asked

“Yes Jenny, I am serious and I promise you”

 

Hearing that answer Jenny felt very delightful. Smile was drawn on her face. Then, she put her head to Johnny shoulder.

“You know Johnny? I am very happy today”

“It is because of love Jenny” Johnny said.

 

Johnny and Jenny didn’t know that three evils were staking out them. Anwa, Suda, and Utra were the name of the three evils. Anwa was the leader of them. Anwa was very genius in influencing human for sinning. He had small body but his brain was very evil.

“Suda, Utra!” Anwa called both of them

“I am here boss” they answer it compactly

“Do you know what must you do?” Anwa asked

“What is it boss?”

“Ghrr!! Stupid!” Anwa look so angry.

“Ha ha ha ha, Utra! Our boss is really evil” said Suda

“Ha ha ha ha ha” Utra laughed and looked confuse with Suda and Anwa. He didn’t know what actually they mean.

 

Suda and Utra were very stupid evil. They were only able to laugh loudly when their boss Anwa was influencing human for sinning. They always didn’t understand what actually they should do as the evils. Suda was the evil whom always brought a guitar where ever he went even he couldn’t play it well. His body is very thin and black. And he has no scary face. Utra was really very stupid evil. His body was really big and scary but he could never influence human for sinning. He even could not say something correctly. And laugh was the only habit that he had. Suda and Utra always followed where ever their boss went.

 

Known his vassals stupid, Anwa didn’t say anything too much. Then, he ordered them to follow him coming before the king of the evil.

“Suda! Utra! Follow me now”

“Yes master”

 

Now, they were coming before the king of the evil. He was very scary, evil and powerful. Anwa as the leader of the three evils gave a report about what they just saw at the love river. Known this report, the king of evil ordered them to bring Johnny and Jenny falling down into gap error. And Anwa carried out the order of his king with his two vassals.

“My serf, bring them in to the hell and bring them to the gap of error”

“As your order my majesty” Anwa replied.

 

But, the planning of the evil was known by god. God sent two angles to save Johnny and Jenny from the hell and the gap of error. Wansa and Hensa were the name of the angles that were sent by the god. They were the angles who very obligate their god order. Immediately Wansa and Hensa performed the order of the get to save Johnny and Jenny.

“My Brother Hensa, let us save them”

“As you want my brother” Hensa said

“Let us go!”

“Yes brother”

 

At the corner of river, Johnny and Jenny were sitting under a tree looked at the stream of the river. It was really romantic atmosphere with a sunset in the front of them. Johnny pointed his finger to the sunset. And Jenny looked at the sunset. Suddenly, Johnny said something to Jenny that he wanted Jenny believed in Johnny’s love and he would never leave her alone forever.

“Jenny, want you believe me something?”

“What is that Johnny?”

“I want you believe in my love and I want you will always beside of me forever”

“Johnny, I will never leave you alone, and I hope that you will do the same thing”

“Just believe me Jenny” Johnny kissed Jenny’s Brow.

 

At the same time, Johnny wanted to kiss Jenny’s lip. When he almost did it Jenny was pulling out Johnny body smoothly and said that it was not the right time for them kissing.

“Johnny, please don’t do it”

“Hmm, I am sorry I didn’t mean to do it”

“Johnny, I hope that you understand that it was not the right moment for us to kiss”

“I know honey” Johnny pulled a long face.

“Johnny, please forgive me I don’t mean to hurt you” Jenny tried to amuse Johnny.

“I know that” Johnny stood up and walks his foot slowly.

“Johnny, where would you go?” Jenny asked.

“No where honey, I just want to think my mistake”

“But where would you go” Jenny asked him again.

“Just a moment honey, wait me please” Johnny answered her.

“Okay… Up to you Johnny, just do what ever you want to do”

 

Johnny didn’t say anything, and he walked to the big tree in front of him. He didn’t do anything there. He just looked on the ground and he looked regret all his mistakes to Jenny.

“What have I done? Stupid!”

“I hurt her heart” he said in his mind”

 

Suddenly, Anwa, Suda, and Utra came near him and said that he shouldn’t regret his mistake because he known that she loved him.

“Johnny, you don’t have to regret it. I know you love her very much Johnny and she do too Johnny” said Anwa as the leader of the three evils.

“That’s right Johnny, you don’t have to regret it ha ha ha ha ha” Said Suda and Utra

“But I hurt her” said Johnny in his mind

“No Johnny, you didn’t hurt her because she love you Johnny” said Anwa and followed by the laughing of his vassals.

“But” Johnny said

“Just kiss her Johnny, don be afraid” said Anwa

“How is her feeling?” Johnny said in his mind.

“Oh Johnny………..” said Anwa

 

In the same time, suddenly the angels Wansa and Hensa came near to Johnny. And they try to help Johnny from the influence of Anwa, Suda, and Utra. But Anwa, Suda, and Utra gave them a resistance.

“Don’t do it Johnny” said the angle Wansa.

“Johnny, don’t be weak!” said Suda

“This is the change for you to show your love and to know her love for you Johnny” said Anwa

“That is right Johnny” said Utra

“Johnny, don’t do it remember about your future, remember about your parents, and your education. Don’t do it Johnny don’t do it” said Wansa

“Don’t hear him Johnny, Just do it” said Anwa

“Johnny, if you do it. You will do something deeper than it, she would pregnant your child, and you will lost your future Johnny” said Hensa

“Johhny, if she pregnant your child just marry her Johnny” said Anwa

 

“Stop!!!!!!!!!!” said Johnny.

Johnny now felt confuse with his self. And he could not control his self. And finally, he decided to follow his desire. He came near to Jenny, and he tried to kiss Jenny’s lips. But Jenny refused it.

“Don’t do it Johnny, Please”

“Just do it Jenny” said Anwar.

 

Jenny gave continuous resistance. She didn’t want to loose her virgin and her future. But Johnny still rapped her. Until she finally exhausted and she just can be surrender with all Johnny did to her.

“Johnny!!! I hate you” Jenny shouted

But Johnny ignored what Jenny just shouted. He was controlled by his desire and he couldn’t control his heart, mind, and his self. Jenny was only able to cry because of Johnny. She couldn’t do anything. Now she lost her future, and everything. And Johnny looked regret what all he had done. But it was late for everything. Virgin, future has lost because of one mistake and desire.

“Why did you do it to me? What was my mistake?” said Jenny.

“Jenny please forgive me, Jenny..” said Johnny trying for apologizing

“It was too late!! I heat you Johnny! I heat you! Leave me! Leave me!!

“But, Jenny”

“Leave me!!” shout Jenny. Finally Johnny leaved her alone in the corner of the river.

 

Jenny was really depressed with this all. And she could only cry and cry. She didn’t know what will happen to her in the future. She has lost her future just because of uncontrolled desire.

 

Know this matter; the king of evils was very delightful because he was able to break someone with uncontrolled desire. And he gave a reward to Anwa, Suda, and Utra.

 

Three months Later, Jenny pregnant Johnny child for three month. She just sat in the garden everyday waiting for Johnny coming. But she had never known where Johnny was. She hoped that Johnny will come and marry her because she pregnant their first child. She always pried to god that she wanted Johnny back and married her.

“Johnny will you come here meet me and marry me?” said Jenny

“God, please listen my praying. Give him back to me, I really loved him, and I know He really loved me too. God please make it come true.

 

 

Fortunately, god heard Jenny’s pray. Johnny came to Jenny’s house and met Jenny. His coming was that he wanted to engage Jenny and to marry her. Known Johnny’s coming, she was very delightful. She stood up and said that she loved Johnny very much. Johnny replied that he loved her very much too. Johnny promised that he would marry her soon. And finally they are live in happiness forever.

 

The End

Human Learning

Learning is mastering or acquiring knowledge about subject or skill by learning experience, instruction or relatively permanent change of behavior that driven by reward and prevented by punishment. In learning will be there are some changes of behavior on the learners, it may be permanently or temporally. The changes are caused by their experiences in the learning process. In this case, learning is a product of some process. Therefore, it can be called as learning if there is a change in the student behaviors.

Meanwhile, training is the action of teaching a person or animal particular skill or type of behavior. Training refers to acquisition of skill, competence, knowledge or practical skill as the result of the teaching of those skill, competence and knowledge that relate to specified useful competencies. Generally, it is implemented with four general steps, they are: determining entry behavior, formulating the object of activity, designing some training methods, and determining the procedure of evaluation.

In the views of psychologist, there are some alternative approaches and methods that they were offered. For example are behaviorism approach that is offered by Pavlov and Skinner, subsumption theory by Ausubel, and Rogers. These psychologist views will be discussed in the next chapter.

 

PSYCHOLOGIES VIEWS

 

  1. a. Classical Behaviorism by Pavlov

 

In the 20th century, Ivan Pavlov, the psychologist from Russia conducted a research by training a dog trough a procedure that he called as classical conditioning. In his researched, Pavlov trained a dog to dripping it saliva following the sound of bell. Then he called the response of the dog as unconditioned response. Then, in his researched, he used the smell of meat, until the dog got the conditioned response. In the term of human learning, when someone doesn’t give a correct response to a stimulus, it is called by unconditional response. Meanwhile, when someone gives a correct response, it is called by conditional response. In conclusion, in the classical behavior, the term of learning is conducted by giving a stimulus and giving a response.

 

  1. b. Operant Conditioning Skinner

 

In the book titled verbal behavior (1959), Skinner captures the essence of the behaviorist approach to language. Language is not mental phenomenon: It is behavior, like other forms of human behavior. It is learnt by process of habit-formation.[1]

B. F. Skinner with his Operant Conditioning wants to try explaining a part of human learning and human behavior. In operant conditioning, someone behavior can be operant or respondent. Operant is the classes of response, while someone behavior causes a response from the other people it is called by operant. The example of this phenomenon is when a baby cries then it causes the baby’s mother gives him a breast or milk, it is called by operant. While, respondent is a set of response that is induced by recognized stimulus. If someone behavior is a response of a stimulus it is called by respondent. The example is a boy that is punched by his friend, feel hurt and then cry. If he cries because of the punch and hurt, it is called by respondent.

Operant and respondent common happen in language learning. In the class room, there are usually some smart students and some weak students. Respondent commonly happen when the teacher asks the students a question then one of the smart students answer it. While the weak students usually just be quiet, or give no response. If the behavior of weak students causes the teacher gives them extra time to learn, it can be called by operant. Because, the weak student’s behavior causes the teacher gives them extra time for learning.

In addition to operant and respondent, skinner also proposes reward and punishment in the human learning. According to skinner reward and punishment have a strong influence in the learning success. Reward tends to increase students motivation in learning. But, punishment is usually harming the students. Punishment doesn’t build student behavior well. And it usually makes the students lost his motivation to learn.

In the term of punishment, skinner offers a way out that punishment is better to be erased. Skinner offers to change the punishment with giving motivation or suggestion. Motivation and suggestion will build student’s behavior well. Therefore, if the students cannot answer the teacher question, the teacher should not give the students punishment. In other hand, the teacher must give them motivation that can make them repair their mistake.

In 1993, Omaggio Hadley summarized the characteristics of behaviorism approach as follow:

  1. Human learning and animal learning are similar;
  2. All behavior is viewed as a response to stimuli;
  3. The mind of the student is tabula-rasa;
  4. Conditioning involves the strengthening of association between a stimulus and response through the reinforcement;
  5. Human language is a sophisticated response system acquired through operant conditioning.[2]

 

  1. c. Subsumption Ausubel

 

David Ausubel states that human learning happens through a meaningful process which is connected between the new knowledge or experience and existing knowledge or experience. In his theory, Ausubel emphasize mental structure or organization. Therefore, the focus of human learning is not stimulus-response bonds but mental events. This theory is the opposite of behaviorist theory in which emphasizes human learning on Habit-formation.

The cognitive theory that is proposed by Ausubel can be understood by contrasting rote learning and meaningful learning. Rote learning is recalling items without connecting it with a system or existing cognitive data. While, meaningful learning is studying new knowledge by integrating and importing it in the contextual system in to existing knowledge. Meaningful learning only happens when the new knowledge or experience can be integrated in to existing knowledge by the learners. In other word, it is not be able to be conducted if the learners have no previous knowledge or experience that related to the new knowledge.

In the rote learning, knowledge acquisition and experience acquisition are treated as separated units that are randomly integrated in the cognitive system. Therefore, rote learning involves a performance of memorizing items that are not related to the existing cognitive units.

Meanwhile, meaningful learning can be applied as a process of connecting and integrating between new knowledge or experience and the existing knowledge or experience. In this kind of learning, while the new knowledge and experience entering cognitive field, it will interact with, and be integrated appropriately to the broader conceptual system.

In addition to rote and meaningful learning, Ausubel also proposes that forget is systematic. In this matter, he states that forget in the meaningful learning is more intended rather than forget in the rote learning. It is because in the meaningful learning, the learners are integrated new knowledge with existing knowledge. While in the rote learning, the learners only perform memorizing items that are not related to the existing knowledge in the learner’s cognitive field.

Ausubel states that in the term of meaningful learning, forget are the second step after integrating new knowledge with the existing knowledge. In the forgetting step, the specific items are not considered as separated items but it is considered as integrated items. Therefore, the specific and separated concept of knowledge will be integrated become a broader concept of knowledge.

 

  1. d. Humanistic Psychologist Rogers

 

Carl Rogers is not considered as a psychologist of learning but he gives a big influence to the learning concept understanding. In his classical concept of client-centered therapy, he analyzes and explains human behavior and process of learning. This view brings important implication to the education system.

In his concept, Rogers states that students have full participation in the learning process. He tends to avoid teaching and substitute it by learning. Therefore, the most important one is learning how to learning. In this case the enable of students becomes very important in the learning process. Students are not anymore considered as a listener but as intact individual that must be involved in whole aspect of learning. In conclusion, all activities and learning materials in the class must use subsumption context, and all students involved in the process of learning and finding solution in the problem of learning.

 

INTELLIGENCE AND LANGUAGE LEARNING

 

Intelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. Besides, Intelligence related to someone acquiring knowledge ability, memorizing ability, and learning ability.

Hery Yufrizal in an introduction to second language acquisiton states that intelligence has strong impact toward language learning. Research studies also shown that three cognitive factor including intelligence has strong impact in the language learning success. At least, high intelligence will helps the learners follow class learning activities well.

 

References

 

H. Douglas Brown. 2001. Teaching by Principles an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy Second Addition. San Francisco State University.

H. Douglas Brown. 2007. Prinsip Pembelajaran dan Pengajaran Bahasa Edisi V. Pearson Education

Hery Yufrizal, MA, Ph.D. 2008. An Introduction to second Language Acquisition (A Text book for ESL Learners and English Teacher). Bandung: Penerbit Pustaka Reka Cipta.

Smith, M. K. (1999) ‘Learning theory’, the encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/biblio/b-learn.htm.


[1] Hery Yufrizal, MA, Ph.D. 2008. An Introduction to second Language Acquisition (A Text book for ESL Learners and English Teacher). Bandung: Penerbit Pustaka Reka Cipta. Page 43

[2] Hery Yufrizal, MA, Ph.D. Cop. Cit. Page 44.

Speech Act (Java, Indonesia and English)

  1. Sumur mu sat yo?
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone really asking someone other about the condition of his/ her well.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it may a request to get someone drink because of thirsty.
  • The perlocutionary force meaning is that if the utterance leads an action of giving a glass of water to be drunk.

 

  1. Sampean ki sakjane iso numpak sepedah ora to?
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone asks someone other about their ability in riding a bicycle.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it may a command that someone must be careful in riding a bicycle, because he/ she is bumping someone other.
  • The perlocutionary force is that if the utterance leads an action that someone will be more careful in riding bicycle, therefore he or she will not bump someone other anymore.

 

  1. Mbok nek nembang ki ora usah merdu-merdu.
  • The lucotionary meaning is that someone asks someone other to not sing a song well.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it may a suggestion from a father to his son or daughter to not ask something out of their parent ability. The son asks his father to buy him a new motorcycle but his father has no money to buy him a motorcycle.
  • The perlocutionary force meaning is that if the utterance leads an action of stopping in asking something that is impossible to be given.

 

 

 

  1. Jane awakmu ki wes pirang dino to ora adus?
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone asks a question to his or her friend about when someone other recently gets a shower.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it is a request to using a perfume.
  • The perlocutionary force meaning is that if the utterance leads an action of using a perfume to make his or her body be fragrance.

 

  1. Awakmu ki bar ngopo wae to jane ki?
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone asks someone other about what he/ she has been done.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it may an assertion that someone is disappoint with someone other because he or she didn’t finish the job on time.

 

  1. Awakmu ngerti ora sepatu iki regane piro?
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone asks someone other about the price of his or her shoes.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it may be an assertion that someone wants to show to someone other that he or she has a costly shoes. Or it may be an expression of angry, because someone has broken his or her shoes.
  • The perlocutionary force meaning is that if the utterance leads to an action of insulting someone other who has bad shoes.

B. Indonesian

  1. Kamu ni semalem tidur jam berapa?
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone asks someone other a bout what time he or she slept last night.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it may a teacher get angry to his or her students because they are late.

 

  1. Aku sudah lelah sekarang.
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone explains about his or her condition.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it may be a request to not ask him or her to do something.
  • The perlocutionary meaning is that if this utterance makes someone other doesn’t brother him or asks him to do something.
  1. Kamu sebenernya bisa gak sih nyetir mobilnya?
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone asks someone other about their ability in driving a car.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it may a request that someone must be careful in driving a car, because he/ she almost crash a truck.
  • The perlocutionary force meaning is that if the utterance leads an action of driving carefully.

 

  1. Awas lo lantainya licin masihan.
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone informs someone other about the condition of the floor.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it may a warning to be careful in crossing the floor.
  • The perlocutionary meaning is that if the utterance leads an action of being careful in crossing the floor.

 

  1. Belum selesai to?
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone asks about the process of something is being done.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it is may be a request in order that someone go out from the toilet soon.
  • The perlocutionary meaning is that if the utterance leads an action of going out from the toilet soon.

 

 

C. English

  1. Ladies and gentlemen, please give me your attention.
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone wants audiences give an attention to him.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it may be a polite request to be quiet in the seminar.
  • The perlocutionary is that if the utterance leads and action of being quiet in the seminar, it is better than the request is ignored.

 

  1. I will try my best to be at home for dinner.
  • The locutionary meaning is that Misbakh promises to get dinner at home.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that Misbakh promises be at home in time.
  • The perlocutionary meaning is that if the utterance leads an action of going home and being at home in time.

 

  1. Can you ride a bicycle?
  • The locutionary meaning is that someone asks someone other about their ability in riding a bicycle.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that it may a command that someone must be careful in riding a bicycle, because he/ she bumping someone other.
  • The perlocutionary force is that if the utterance leads an action of being careful in riding.

 

  1. Watch out! The lion is dangerous.
  • The locutionary meaning is that John gives information that the lion is dangerous to the visitor.
  • The illocutionary meaning is that John gives a warning to the visitor to be careful with the lion.
  • The perlocutionally force meaning is that if the utterance leads an action of being careful with the lion.

Tasawuf Akhlaqi dan ‘Amali

Allah menciptakan manusia di muka bumi adalah untuk menjadi kholifah atau pemimpin di muka bumi. Tidak terlepas dari fitrahnya ini, Allah SWT menganugrahkan dua potensi penting dalam diri manusia, yaitu akal dan nafsu.

 

Allah SWT memberikan akal kepada manusia agar mereka mampu dan dapat membedakan mana yang baik dan mana yang benar, dalam bertindak, bertingkah laku, berbuat ataupun bekerja. Sementara nafsu adalah sebuah pemicu bagi tingkat pekerjaan yang dilakukan oleh akal. Sehingga, nafsu ini dapat menjadi nafsu yang baik, yakni nafsu yang dilatih untuk menghindar dari perbuatan-perbuatan yang tercela dan membawa dosa, dan nafsu yang buruk, yakni nafsu yang dilatih untuk melakukan perbuatan-perbuatan dosa dan salah.

 

Para ahli sufi memiliki pendapat bahwa hawa nafsu dapat menjadi tabir penghalang untuk dapat dekat dengan Allah SWT. Hal yang seperti ini akan terjadi ketika diri seseorang telah dikendalikan oleh hawa nafsu. Hawa nafsu yang seperti ini akan membawa manusia cenderung memuja kenikmatan duniawi. Hingga pada akhirnya bukanlah kenikamtan kehidupan akherat yang dijadikan tujuan utama dalam hidup, melainkan kenikmatan dunia lah dijadikan tujuan utama dalam mencapai keberhasilan hidun

 

Dalam kitab Ma’rifat Ghubahan Ihsanuddin dinukilkan ungkapan para ahli sufi : Jalan-jalan menuju Allah itu sebanyak bintang-bintang di langit, atau sebanyak bilangan nafas manusia.[1] Salah satu dari jalan itu adalah dengan mengendalikan hawa nafsu. Bila hawa nafsu ini dapat dikendalikan, maka ia tidak akan membawa diri manusia kedalam kesesatan. Para ahli sufi beranggapan bahwa, dengan mengendalikan hawa nafsu berarti manusia tengah dalam upaya pembersihan jiwa yang dapat menuntunnya untuk dekat kepada Allah SWT.

 

Pada hakekatnya, para kaum sufi telah membuat sebuah sistem yang tersusun secara  teratur yang berisi pokok-pokok konsep dan merupakan inti dari ajaran tasawuf. [2] Diantaranya adalah, Takhalli, Tahalli, Tajalli, Munajat, Muroqobah, Muhasabah, Syari’at, Thariqat, dan Ma’rifat yang merupakan tujuan akhir dari tasawuf yakni mengenal Allah dengan sebenar-benarnya.

 

A. TASAWUF AKHLAQI

Tasawuf Akhlaqi adalah suatu ajaran yang menerangkan sisi moral dari seorang hamba dalam rangka melakukan taqorrub kepada tuhannya, dengan cara mengadakan Riyyadah[3] pembersihan diri dari moral yang tidak baik, karena tuhan tidak menerima siapapun dari hamba-Nya kecuali yang berhati salim (terselamatkan dari penyakit hati).[4] Isi dari ajaran Tasawuf Akhlaqi adalah, Takhalli, Tahalli, Tajalli, Munajat, Murroqobah, memperbanyak dzikir dan wirid, mengingat mati, dan tafakkur.

 

1. Takhalli

 

Takhalli atau penarikan diri berati menarik diri dari perbuatan-perbuatan dosa yang merusak hati. Definisi lain mengatakan bahwa, Takhalli adalah membersihkan diri sifat-sifat tercela dan juga dari kotoran atau penyakit hati yang merusak.[5] Takhalli juga berarti mengosongkan diri sikap ketergantungan terhadap kelezatan duniawi.[6]

Dari definisi takhali di atas, dapat dinyatakan bahwa takhalli ini dapat dicapai dengan menjauhkan diri dari kemaksiatan, kelezatan atau kemewahan dunia, serta melepaskan diri dari hawa nafsu yang jahat, yang kesemuanya itu adalah penyakit hati yang dapat merusak. Menurut kelompok sufi, maksiat dibagi menjadi dua, yakni maksiat lahir dan maksiat batin.[7] Maksit lahir adalah segala bentuk maksiat yang dilakukan atau dikerjakan oleh anggota badan yang bersifat lahir. Sedangkan maksiat batin adalah berbagai bentuk dan macam maksiat yang dilakukan oleh hati, yang merupakan organ batin manusia.

Pada hakekatnya, maksiat batin ini lebih berbahaya dari pada maksiat lahir. Jenis maksiat ini cenderung tidak tersadari oleh manusia karena jenis maksiat ini adalah jenis maksiat yang tidak terlihat, tidak seperti maksiat lahir yang cenderung sering tersadari dan terlihat. Bahkan maksiat batin dapat menjadi motor bagi seorang manusia untuk melakukan maksiat lahir. Sehingga bila maksiat batin ini belum dibersihkan atau belum dihilangkan, maka maksiat lahir juga tidak dapat dihilangkan.

Kelompok sufi beranggapan bahwa penyakit-penyakti dan kotoran hati yang sangat berbahaya tersebut dapa menjadi hijab[8] untuk dapat dekat dengan tuhan. Sehingga agar mudah menerima pancaran Nur Illahi dan dapat mendekatkan diri dengan tuhan maka hijab tersebut haruslah dihapuskan dan dihilangkan. Yakni, dengan berusaha membersihkan hati dari penyakit-penyakit hati dan kotoran hati yang dapat merusak. Upaya pembersihan hati ini dapat dilakukan dengan cara sebagai berikut :

  1. Menghayati segala bentuk ibadah, agar dapat memahaminya secara hakiki
  2. Berjuang dan berlatih membebaskan diri dari kekangan hawa nafsu yang jahat dan menggantinya dengan sifat-sifat yang positif.
  3. Menangkal kebiasaan yang buruk dan mengubahnya dengan kebiasaan yang baik.
  4. Muhasabah, yakni koreksi terhadap diri sendiri tentang keburukan-keburukan apa saja yang telah dilakukan dan menggantinya dengan kebaikan-kebaikan.

 

2. Tahalli

Secara etimologi kata Tahalli berarti berhias. Sehingga Tahalli adalah menghiasi diri dengan sifat-sifat yang terpuji serta mengisi diri dengan perilaku atau perbuatan yang sejalan dengan ketentuan agama baik yang bersifat lahir maupun batin. Definisi lain menerangkan bahwa Tahalli berarti mengisi diri dengan perilaku yang baik dengan taat lahir dan taat batin, setelah dikosongkan dari perilaku maksiat dan tercela.[9] Diterangkan pula bahwa Tahalli adalah menghias diri dengan jalan membiasakan diri dengan sifat dan sikap serta perbuatan yang baik.[10]

Tahalli merupakan tahap pengisian jiwa yang telah dikosongkan pada tahap Takhalli.[11] Dengan kata lain, Tahalli adalah tahap yang harus dilakukan setelah tahap pembersihan diri dari sifat-sifat, sikap dan perbuatan yang buruk ataupun tidak terpuji, yakni dengan mengisi hati dan diri yang telah dikosongkan aatu dibersihkan tersebut dengan sifat-sifat, sikap, atau tindakan yang baik dan terpuji. Dalam hal yang harus dibawahi adalah pengisian jiwa dengan hal-hal yang baik setalah jiwa dibersihkan dan dikosongkan dari hal-hal yang buruk bukan berarti hati harus dibersihkan dari hal-hal yang buruk terlebih dahulu, namun ketika jiwa dan hati dibersihkan dari hal-hal yang bersifat kotor, merusak, dan buruk harus lah diiringi dengan membiasakan diri melakukan hal-hal yang bersifat baik dan terpuji. Karena hal-hal yang buruk akan terhapuskan oleh kebaikan.

Pada dasarnya, jiwa manusia dapatlah dilatih, diubah, dikuasai, dan dibentuk sesuai dengan kehendak manusia itu sendiri.[12] Dengan kata lain sikap, atau tindakan yang dicerminkan dalam bentuk perbuatan baik yang bersifat lahir ataupun dapat dilatih, dirubah menjadi sebuah kebiasaan dan dibentuk menjadi sebuah kepribadian. Sehingga, pengisian jiwa dengan hal-hal yang baik itu diawali dengan melatih diri dengan melakukan hal-hal yang baik, sehingga lama kelamaan hal-hal yang baik tersebut akan berubah menjadi kebiasaan, dan apabila secara berkelanjutan dilakukan hal-hal yang baik tersebut akan terbentuk menjadi suatu kebiasaan.

Tahalli juga berarti menghiasi diri dengan sifat-sifat Allah. Yaitu menghiasi diri dengan sifat-sifat yang terpuji. Apa bila jiwa dapat diisi dan dihiasi dengan sifat-sifat yang terpuji, hati tersebut akan menjadi terang dan tenang, sehingga jiwa akan menjadi mudah menerima nur Illahi karena tidak terhijab atau terhalang oleh sifat-sifat yang tercela dan hal-hal yang buruk Hal-hal yang harus dimasukkan, yang meliputi sikap mental dan perbuatan luhur itu adalah seperti taubat, sabar, kefakiran, zuhud[13], tawakal[14], cinta, dan ma’rifah[15].[16]

3. Tajalli

Tajalli adalah tahap yang dapat ditempuh oleh seorang hamba ketika ia sudah mampu melalui tahap Takhalli dah Tahalli. Tajalli adalah lenyapnya atau hilangnnya hijab dari sifat kemanusiaan  atau terangnya nur yang selama itu tersembunyi atau fana segala sesuatu selain Allah, ketika nampak wajah Allah.[17]

Tahap Tajalli di gapai oleh seorang hamba ketika mereka telah mampu melewati tahap Takhalli dan Tahalli. Hal ini berarti untuk menempuh tahap Tajalli seorang hamba harus melakukan suatu usaha serta latihan-latihan kejiwaan atau kerohanian, yakni dengan membersihkan dirinya dari penyakit-penyakit jiwa seperti berbagai bentuk perbuatan maksiat dan tercela, kemegahan dan kenikmatan dunia lalu mengisinya dengan perbuatan-perbuatan, sikap, dan sifat-sifat yang terpuji, memperbanyak dzikir, ingat kepada Allah, memperbanyak ibadah dan menghiasi diri dengan amalan-amalan mahmudah yang dapat menghilangkan penyakit jiwa dalam hati atau dir seorang hamba.

Tahap Tajalli tentu saja tidak hanya dapat ditempuh dengan melakukan latihan-latihan kejiwaan yang tersebut di atas, namun latihan-latihan tersebut harus lah dapat ia rubah menjadi sebuah kebiasaan dan membentuknya menjadi sebuah kepribadian. Hal ini berarti, untuk menempuh jalan kepada Allah dan membuka tabir yang menghijab manusia dengan Allah, seseorang harus terus melakukan hal-hal yang dapat terus mengingatkannya kepada Allah, seperti banyak berdzikir dan semacamnya juga harus mampu menghindarkan diri dari perbuatan-perbuatan yang dapat membuatnya lupa dengan Allah seperti halnya maksiat dan semacamnya.

Dapat pula diumpamakan pula bahwa, seorang yang mencari tuhan adalah seperti orang yang bercermin di depan sebuah kaca besar yang kotor. Kotoran dalam cermin itu diibaratkan sebahai sebuah hijab yang menghalanginya untuk melihat bayangannya dengan jelas, dan bayangan itu diibaratkan sebagai tuhan. Untuk dapat melihat bayangannya dengan jelas seseorang tidak perlu memindahkan cerminnya kekanan atau kekiri atau membeli cermin yang baru. Melainkan, seseorang tersebut hanya harus membersihkan kotoran tersebut untuk dapat melihat bayangannya dengan jelas. Dengan demikian, jelaslah bahwa untuk dapat membuka hijab antara manusia dengan Allah seseorang harus mampu membersihkan kotoran-kotaran yang terdapat dalam jiwanya dan menggantinya dengan perbuatan, sifat dan sikap yang terpuji dan baik agar hatinya tidak lagi tercemari dan terkotori oleh penyakit-penyakit jiwa yang dapat menjadi hijab antara seorang hamba dengan Allah.

 

4. Munajat

Munajat berarti melaporkan segala aktivitas yang dilakukan kehadirat Allah SWT.[18] Maksudnya adalah dalam munajat seseorang mengeluh dan mengadu kepada Allah tentang kehidupan yang seorang hamba alami dengan untaian-untaian kalimat yang indah diiringi dengan pujian-pujian kebesaran nama Allah.

Munajat biasanya dilakukan dalam suasanya yang hening teriring dengan deraian air mata dan ungkapan hati yang begitu dalam. Hal ini adalah bentuk dari sebuah do’a yang diungkapkan dengan rasa penuh keridhoan untuk bertemu dengan Allah SWT.

Menurut kaum sufi, tangis air mata itu menjadi salah satu amal adabiyah atau , suatu riyadhah bagi orang sufi ketika bermunajat kepada Allah.[19] Para kaum sufi pun berpandangan bahwa tetesan-tetesan air mata tersebut merupakan suatu tanda penyeselan diri atas kesalahan-kesalahan yang tidak sesuai dengan kehendak Allah. Sehingga, bermunajat dengan do’a dan penyesalan yang begitu mendalam atas semua kesalahan  yang diiringi dengan tetesan-tetesan air mata merupakan salah satu cara untuk memperdalam rasa ketuhanan dan mendekatkan diri kepada Allah.

 

5. Muraqabah

Muraqabah menurut arti bahasa berasal dari kata raqib yang berarti penjaga atau pengawal. Muraqabah menurut kalangan sufi mengandung pengertian adanya kesadaran diri bahwa ia selalu berhadapan dengan Allah dalam keadaan diawasi-Nya.[20] Muroqobah juga dapat diartikan merasakan kesertaan Allah, merasakan keagungan Allah Azza wa Jalla di setiap waktu dan keadaan serta merasakan kebersamaan-Nya di kala sepi atau pun ramai.[21]

Sikap muroqobah ini akan menghadirkan kesadaran pada diri dan jiwa seseorang bahwa ia selalu diawasi dan dilihat oleh Allah setiap waktu dan dalam setiap kondisi apapun. Sehingga dengan adanya kesadaran ini seseorang akan meneliti apa-apa yang mereka telah lakukan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, apakah ini sudah sesuai dengan kehendak Allah ataukan malah menyimpang dari apa yang di tentukan-Nya.

Disamping itu ada satu istilah yang disebut dengan sikap mental muqorobah, yakni sikap selalu memandang Allah dengan mata hati (Vision of Heart). Sebaliknya, ia pun juga menyadari bahwa Allah juga melihatnya, mengawasinya, dan memandangnya dengan sangat penuh perhatian.

Ketika muroqobah dilakukan untuk menghadirkan kemantapan hati dan ketenangan batin seseorang dalam praktik mendekatkan diri kepada Allah. Hal ini dikarenakan, bila sudah tertanam kesadaran bahwa seseorang selalu melihat Allah dengan hatinya dan ia sadar bahwa Allah selalu memandangnya dengan penuh perhatian maka seseorang tersebut akan semakin mantab untuk mengamalkan dan melakukan apa-apa yang diridloi oleh Allah sehingga batin nya akan semakin terbuka untuk dapat mendekatkan dirinya pada Allah.

Sikap mental muroqobah ini dapat digambarkan dalam sebuah cerita sufi, yakni ketika seorang muslim yang berjualan baju keliling diajak bersetubuh oleh seorang wanita biarawati nasrani. Ketika itu laki-laki muslim itu tengah menjajakan barang dagangannya kerumah biarawati tersebut. Kebetulan saat itu hanya ada mereka berdua, dan tak ada orang lain disana. Ketika itu pula seorang biarawati itu mengajak laki-laki muslim itu untuk bersetubuh. Dan laki-laki itupun terpengaruh oleh godaan setan, dia berkata “ia saya mau”. Namun ketika laki-laki muslim itu dan biarawati itu hampir melakukan persetubuhan, tiba-tiba tersadarlah dalam hati laki-laki tersebut, jika Allah tak pernah tidur dan selalu mengawasinya dengan penuh perhatian. Sat itu pula laki-laki muslim itu berkata “saya tak bisa melakukannya, saya takut dengan Allah karna dia selalu mengawasi saya”. Hingga akhirnya mereka tidak jadi bersetubuh dan laki-laki muslim itu meninggalkan rumah itu.

 

6. Muhasabah

Muhasabah seringkali diartikan dengan memikirkan, memperhatikan, dan memperhitungkan amal dari apa-apa yang ia sudah lakukan dan apa-apa yang ia akan lakukan. Muhasabah juga didefinisikan dengan meyakini bahwa Allah mengetahui segala fikiran, perbuatan, dan rahasia dalam hati yang membuat seseotang menjadi hormat, takut, dan tunduk kepada Allah.[22]

Di dalam muhasabah, seseorang terus-menerus melakukan analisis terhadap diri dan jiwa beserta sikap dan keadaannya yang selalau berubah-ubah. Orang tersebut menghisab dirinya sendiri tanpa menunggu hingga hari hari kebangkitan. Dalam muhasabah hal-hal yang perlu dipaerhatikan adalah menghisab tentang kebajikan dan kewajiban yang sudah dilaksanakan dan seberapa banyak maksiat yang sudah dilaksanakan. Apabila kemaksiatan lebih banyak dilakukan, maka orang tersebut harus menutupnya dengan kebaikan-kebaikan diringi dengan taubatan nasuha.

Dengan demikian sikap mental muhasabah dalah salah satu sikap mental yang harus ditanamkan dalam diri dan jiwa agar dapat meningkatkan kualitas keimanan kita terhadap Allah SWT. Sehingga sikap mental ini akan dapat meningkatkan kualitas ibadah kita kepada Allah SWT, dan membukakan jalan untuk menuju kepada Allah SWT.

 

 

 

B. TASAWUF ‘AMALI

 

Tasawuf ‘Amali adalah tasawuf yang membahas tentang bagaimana cara mendekatkan diri kepada Allah.[23] Terdapat beberapa istilah praktis dalam Tasawuf ‘Amali, yakni syari’at, Thariqat, dan Ma’rifat.

 

1. Syari’at dan Thariqat

 

Secara umum syaria’t adalah segala ketentuan agama yang sudah ditetapkan oleh Allah untuk hambanya. Bagi orang-orang sufi, syari’at itu ialah amal ibadah lahir dan urusan muamalat mengenai hubungan antara manusia dengan manusia.[24] Definisi lain mengatakan bahwa Syari’at adalah kualitas amal lahir –formal yang ditetapkan dalam ajaran agama melalui Al-qur’an dan sunnah.[25] Sebab itu, dapat dikatakan bahwa syari’at adalah ilmu ibadah yang cenderung hanya menyentuh aspek lahir manusia dan tidak menyentuh aspek batin manusia.

Ath-Thusi dalam Al-Luma’ mengatakan bahwa syari’at adalah suatu ilmu yang mengandung dua pengertian, yaitu riwayah dan dirayah yang berisikan amalan-amalan lahir dan batin.[26] Selanjutnya yang perlu dipahami adalah bahwa apabila syari’at di artikan sebagai ilmu yang riwayah adalah segala macam hukum teoritis yang termaktub dan terurai dalam ilmu fiqih yakni ilmu-ilmu teoritis yang bersifat lahiriah. Sebaliknya, apabila syari’at diartikan sebagai ilmu yang dirayah maka makna dari syari’at itu adalah makna batiniah dari ilmu lahiriah atau dapat disebut dengan makna hakikat dari ilmu fiqih itu sendiri. Sehingga, bila dikaitkan dengan para fuqaha dan sufi yang memiliki perbedaan pandangan, syari’at yang bersifat riwayah adalah macam ilmu yang disebut dengan fiqih, yakni ilmu yang menyentuh aspek lahiriah saja. Sedangkan syari’at yang berkonotasi dirayah adalah ilmu yang sekarang ini dikenal dengan ilmu tasawuf yakni ilmu yang cenderung menyentuh aspek batiniah.

Mengenai syari’at ini para ahli sufi lebih menekankan pada aspek hakekat atau makna batiniah dari dari ilmu lahiriah (syari’at) ketimbang para ahli fiqih yang hanya menekankan pada aspek lahiriyah saja. Memang pada dasarnya syari’at adalah simbol hukum yang mengatur kehidupan agama yang bersifat lahiriyah. Namun menurut para sufi hal ini tidak berkaitan dengan kenyataan batin. Kenyataan batin dan iman itu diluar jangkauan dari syari’at (ilmu yang bersifat lahiriah) dan hal ini hanya dapat dilihat dan dimengerti dengan jalan sufi. Menurut keyakinan sufi, seseorang akan mencapai hakikat suatu ibadah apabila mereka telah menempuh jalan yang menuju pada hakikat tersebut, yakni thariqat.

Thariqat menurut istilah tasawuf adalah jalan yang harus ditempuh oleh seorang sufi dalam mencapai tujuan berada sedekat mungkin dengan tuhan.[27] Thariqat adalah jalan yang ditempuh para sufi dan digambarkan sebagai jalan yang berpangkal dari syari’at, sebab jalan utama disebut syar’, sedangkan anak jalan disebut dengan thariq.[28] Oleh sebab itu dapat disimpulkan bahwa thariqat adalah cabang dari syari’at yang merupakan pangkal dari suatu ibadah. Hal ini dapat pula digambarkan bahwa tidak mungkin adanya suatu ibadah yang dilakukan tanpa adanya perintah yang mengikat. Sehingga untuk menempuh anak jalan yang menuntun kepada hakikat tujuan ibadah harus mengerti terlebih dahulu akar atau pangkal dari jalan tersebut, yaitu syari’at (landasan hukum). Sehingga dapat digambarkan bahwa jalan-jalan tersebut terbagi kedalam tiga batasan antara manusia dan teologis, yakni syari’at, thariqat dan hakikat[29].

Dalam hal ini, terdapat pepatah sufi yang mengatakan “untuk mencapai haqiqah (inti) anda harus mampu menghancurkan kulit”.[30] Yakni makna essensial melebihi makna-makna yang bersifat eksotoris dan tidak dapat direduksikan dalam bentuk luaran yang bersifat eksotoris.

 

2. Ma’rifat

Ma’rifat berasal dari kata ‘arafa, yu’rifu, ‘irfan, ma’rifah artinya adalah pengetahuan, pengalaman dan pengetahuan illahi. Ma’rifat adalah kumpulan ilmu pengetahuan, perasaan, pengalaman, amal dan ibadah kepada Allah SWT.[31] Dalam istilah tasawuf ma’rifat adalah pengetahuan yang sangat jelas dan pasti tentang tuhan yang diperoleh melalui sanubari.

Al-Ghazali secara terperinci mengemukakan pengertian ma’rifat kedalam hal-hal berikut:

  1. Ma’rifat adalah mengenal rahasia-rahasia Allah dan aturan-aturan-Nya yang melingkupi seluruh yang ada;
  2. Seseorang yang sudah sampai pada ma’rifat berada dekat dengan Allah, bahkan ia dapat memandang wajahnya;
  3. Ma’rifat datang sebelum mahabbah.[32]

Sebagian besar para sufi mengatakan bahwa ma’rifat adalah puncak dari tasawuf, yakni mengenal Allah dengan sebenar-benarnya. Oleh karena itu, para sufi berkeyakinan bahwa setiap orang yang menempuh jalan tasawuf dan mengamalkannya dengan sungguh-sungguh ia akan sampai pada akhir tujuan tasawuf itu sendiri yaitu mengenal Allah dengan sebenar-benarnya, yakni ma’rifat.

Para sufi beranggapan bahwa ma’rifat adalah ilmu laduni, yakni ilmu yang di diperoleh dari anugerah tuhan yang tidak dapat didapat lewat usaha manusia.[33] Hal ini berarti bahwa ilmu ini diberikan oleh tuhan kepada hambanya yang diistimewakan atau dipilih melalui ketakwaan, kesalehan dan sufi[34]. Untuk mendapatkan ma’rifat seorang sufi harus menyucikan jiwa dari perbuatan-perbuatan yang kotor dan memperbaiki diri dengan sebaik-baiknya serta melakukan pendakian tingkatan-tingkatan rohani yang disebut dengan maoqamat[35] yang mana tujuan akhir dari pendakian tersebut adalah ma’rifat yakni mengenal Allah dengan sebenar-benarnya.

 

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

 

Drs. Totok Jumantoro, M.A dan Drs. Samsul Munir Amin, M.Ag. 2005. Kamus Ilmu Tasawuf. Wonosobo: Penerbit AMZAH.

Drs. Asmaran As., M.A. 1996. Pengantar Studi Tasawuf. Jakarta: Rajawali Pers.

http://www.kawulagusti.blogspot.com/…/isi-pokok-ajaran-tasawuf.html

http://www.meetabied.wordpress.com/2010/02/20/ilmu-tasawuf/

http://www.ratih1727.multiply.com/journal/item/171.html

Mukhtar Hadi, M.Si. 2009. Memahami Ilmu Tasawuf “Sebuah Pengantar Ilmu Tasawuf. Yogyakarta: Aura Media.

Simuh. 1997. Tasawuf dan Perkembangannya dalam Islam. Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada.


[1] Simuh. 1997. Tasawuf dan Perkembangannya dalam Islam. Jakarta : PT Raja Grafindo Persada. Hal. 40-41

[2] Mukhtar Hadi, M.Si. 2009. Memahami Ilmu Tasawuf “Sebuah Pengantar Ilmu Tasawuf”. Yigyakarta : Aura Media. Hal 65.-

[3] Riyyadah diartikan sebagai latihan-latihan mistik, latihan kejiwaan dengan upaya membiasakan diri agar tidak melakukan hal-hal yang mengotori jiwanya seperti perbuatan-perbuatan yang tercela baik yang batin maupun yang lahir yang merupakan penyakit hati yang sangat berbahaya.

[4] Drs. Totok Jumantoro, M.A dan Drs. Samsul Munir Amin, M.Ag. 2005. Kamus Ilmu Tasawuf. Wonosobo: Penerbit AMZAH. Hal. 263

[5] Ibid. Hal.233.

[6] Ibid, Hal 233.

[7] Ibid, Hal.233.

[8] Hijab menurut bahassa artinya adalah kerudung, tirai, atau tabir. Pengertian Hijab menurut istilah adalah segala sesuatu dari diri manusia yang menyembunyikan dan menutupi Allah. Hijab juga seringkali dipahami sebagai dinding penghalang yang membuat manusia tidak bisa berhubungan dengan tuhan.

[9] Mukhtar Hadi, M.Si. Op.cit Hal. 67

[10] Drs. Totok Jumantoro, M.A dan Drs. Samsul Munir Amin, M.Ag. Op.cit. Hal. 227

[11] Ibid, Hal 227

[12] Ibid, Hal 227

[13] Zuhud adalah mengosongkan diri dari kesenangan dunia untuk ibadah. Mengosongkan bukan berarti benar-benar tidak menginginkan dunia, melainkan lebih mementingkan kehidupan akherat dibandingkan dunia.

[14] Tawakal biasa diartikan sebagai sikap bersandar dan mempercayakan diri kepada Allah. Tawakal tidak berarti beserah diri tanpa ada usaha, melainkan mempercayakan diri atau beserah diri kepada Allah harus diiringi dengan usaha dan perbuatan.

[15] Ma’rifah itu sebanarnya adalaha Allah menyinari hati seorang hamba dengan cahaya ma’rifat yang murni, sehingga ma’rifah bukanlah suatu yang dapat dicapai dengan usaha manusia, melainkan dengan pilihan Allah kepada hambanya yang diistimewakan. Sehingga seorang hamba, benar-benar seperti bisa mengenal Allah.

[16] Muhtar hadi, M.Si. Loc.cit. Hal.68

[17] Drs. Totok Jumantoro, M.A dan Drs. Samsul Munir Amin, M.Ag. Loc.cit. Hal. 229

[18] Mukhtar Hadi, M.Si. Op.cit. Hal. 70

[19] Mukhtar Hadi, M.Si. Op.cit. Hal. 71

[20] Drs. Totok Jumantoro, M.A dan Drs. Samsul Munir Amin, M.Ag. Loc.cit. Hal. 150

[21] Dikutip dari: http://ratih1727.multiply.com/journal/item/171, Tanggal 22 Oktober 2010

[22] Drs. Totok Jumantoro, M.A dan Drs. Samsul Munir Amin, M.Ag. Loc.cit. Hal. 147

[23] Drs. Totok Jumantoro, M.A dan Drs. Samsul Munir Amin, M.Ag. Loc.cit. Hal. 263

[24] Mukhtar Hadi, M.Si. Loc.cit. Hal. 74

[25] Ibid, Hal 217

[26] Ibid, Hal 217

[27] Drs. Totok Jumantoro, M.A dan Drs. Samsul Munir Amin, M.Ag. Loc.cit. Hal. 239

[28] Mukhtar Hadi, M.Si. Loc.cit. Hal. 75

[29] Hakikat atau Haqiqah adalah kebenaran yang bersifat essensial. Makna kaqiqah menunjukkan kebenarana esoteris yang merupakan batas-batas dari transedensi manusia dan teologis. Haqiqah merupakan unsur ketiga setelah syari’ah (hukum) yang merupakan kenyataan eksoteris, Thariqat (jalan) sebagai tahapan esoterisme, dan yang ketiga adalah haqiqah, yakni kebenaran yang essensial.

[30] Loc.cit. Hal. 71

[31] Mukhtar Hadi, M.Si. Loc.cit. Hal. 76

[32] Ibid, Hal 141

[33] Loc.cit Hal. 77

[34] Nama sufi berlaku pada pria atau wanita yang telah menyucikan hatinya dangan dzikrullah, menempuh jalan kembali kepada Allah, dan sampai pada pengetahuan hakiki (Ma’rifat).

[35] Maqomat secara bahasa berate kedudukan, secara istilah adalah kedudukan manusia dihadapan Allah yang disebabkan oleh ibadahnya, mujahadatnya, riyadhahnya, dan pencurahan hatinya pada Allah.