Clause and Sentence Theory

A clause is a group of word which minimum contains of verb and complement, but it may also contain of a single verb, its complement, and its adjunct.[1] An ideal clause may contain a phrase that refers to an action, refers to people that involves to the action or state, or may refers to time and place of the action.[2] It means that a clause minimum contains of one verb or predicate but it is not may only a verb. It may also contain a phrase or other clause that modify the verb.

Linguistics divides sentence into two central parts, they are the subject and the predicate.[3] In the clause, predicate has a function to express an event within the clause. The term of clause refers to sentence that becomes the fundamental element of other sentence or phrase.[4] It may coordinate with one or more than one fundamental element of sentence or clause to form a compound or complex sentence. Therefore, a simple sentence contains only one clause and a complex sentence contains at least two clauses.

A sentence is a group of words or phrases that form a statement, exclamation, or question. It has been stated above that a sentence that contains of one clause is known as simple sentence and complex sentence in the other hand contains of more than one sentence. Simple means that consisting of one sentence and complex in the other hand means that consisting of more than one clauses. Bellow is the example of the clause and sentence.

1)      Those men like potato chips.

2)      My friend thinks that the book which is on the table is mine.

Based on the example above, the simple sentence in (1) contains of one clause and it is known as independent sentence or clause. Simple sentence or clause is not attached to the other sentence or clause. That is why it is called by independent sentence or clause. The example (2) in other hand is called by complex sentence. It contains of more than one clause. The bold word in example above is called sub-coordinate conjunction. It is used to join together every single string of simple sentence.[5]

The complex sentence above has one main clause and two (more than one) subordinate clauses. The term of main clause and subordinate clause indicate that the clauses do not have the same function within the sentence.[6] The subordinate clause is contained within the main clause. In other word, it is syntactically dependent on the main clause. Therefore, the subordinate clause is a part of the main clause.


[1]Jim Miller, Op.Cit. p 6

[2] Ibid

[3] Maggie Tallerman, Op.cit. p.58

[4] Herman Wekker and Liliane Haegman. A Modern Course in English Syntax.Taylor and Francis e-Library. 2004. P. 29

[5] Maggie Tallerman. Op.cit. p.77

[6] Ibid

Reading Concept

Moreilon explains that reading is an active process that requires skill and practice.[1] It relates to human capability to understand and to get information from written text. But, reading is not as simple as purposed to achieve understanding the information that appears in the text. Reading is a complex process that involves the reader’s capability in bringing their emotion, feeling, and linguistics knowledge in order to understand the information that is contained in the text.

Klingner states that reading Comprehension is a complex process that involves word reading, word knowledge and world knowledge, and reading fluency to construct meaning from a text.[2]. It means that the reader who has capability in knowing how to read words has a little value if they cannot construct the meaning from the text. Besides, the goal of reading is able to construct meaning from a written text with comprehension.

Emalia states that reading comprehension is the manner to receive and process new information of the text and the degree of relation between what is new and what is already known.[3] It can be said that in comprehending text the schemata and background knowledge of the readers is needed. Understanding the importance of background knowledge is important for the readers to build comprehension because the readers will connect the new information with what already known before integrating and organizing the new information.[4] Background knowledge is like a human shadow that cannot be separated from the human. The shadow will do whatever the human do and follow where ever the human go. In other word, both background knowledge and reading comprehension have close relationship that cannot be separated.  Therefore, to build a good comprehension of the text, the reader must be able to active and build their background knowledge properly. Besides, by connecting the prior or background knowledge of the readers with the new information, the reader will have a scheme in their mind to build their comprehension of the text.

In addition to background knowledge, the activating of background knowledge is one of reading comprehension strategies. Reading comprehension strategy is the tool that is used by the readers to resolve the comprehension problems that the readers found in the text.[5] To make a good comprehension from the text, the readers need an appropriate strategy that can be applied to build a good comprehension.

Zimmerman and Hutchins identify activating or building background knowledge, using sensory image, questioning, making prediction and inference, determining main idea, using fix-up options, synthesizing as the strategy of reading.[6] It has been stated above that building or activating background knowledge become crucial because it is like the human shadow that cannot be separated from the human. It helps the readers to integrating the new information with the prior knowledge to build a good comprehension.

In addition to building background knowledge, the writer also underlines the using of sensory images and questioning strategies. Human are born with sense. At first they learn the world by a sense.[7] Sensory experience is a significant aspect of background knowledge and when the readers think about sensory experience, the readers will make a representation of those experiences in their memory.[8] If the readers bring these sensory experiences to the text, the reader will be the text that is written in their head. The sensory experience that the reader brings to the text is called by schemata.  Therefore, the reader will be easy to build a good comprehension in reading a text.

Besides, using questioning strategy in reading a text will support an internal dialogue between the reader and the author, the illustrator, or the text itself.[9] It means that by bringing questioning strategy to the text, the reader will get a deep comprehension. It is because the questioning strategy keeps the reader to engage with the text and with the author feeling within the text.

It has been stated in the early that reading comprehension is not just reading words within the text but it is a complex process that involves many interaction between the readers and what the readers bring to the text like background knowledge and used strategy. Irwin describes comprehension process in to five processes, they are microprocesses, integrative processes, macroprocesses, elaborative processes, and metacognitive processes.[10]

Microprocesses refer to the reader’s initial chunking of an idea within a single sentence and it involves grouping words in to phrase and requires an understanding of syntax and vocabulary.[11] In microprocesses, the readers will decide which chunk of the text or which detail that is important to be remembered. When the reader reads a single sentence, it will be easy for the reader to remember the detail of the sentence. But, when the readers read all passages of the text, it will be more difficult for the reader to remember all details of the text. Therefore, microprocesses help the reader to remember which details that are important to remembered or recalled and it is known as selective recall. In other word, it can be said that by recalling the important details of the text the readers will have a good comprehension of the text.

Integrative processes refer to the understanding and inferring the relationship among clause.[12] After processing every individual sentence within the text, the readers are processing the relationship among individual sentence and meaning within the text. Bellow is the example integrative processes.

–          In the mid of the night, John quickly close his room door and shut the windows. He is afraid.

Based on the example above, the integrating process will be done by questioning to whom he in the second applies and why john closes it quickly. By integrating the relation meaning among the sentence, the readers will know that he in the second sentence is apply for John in the first sentence and the readers will also know that John close the door because he is afraid.

The ideas within the text are more easily understood and remembered when the readers are able to organize those ideas in coherent organizing.[13] Similar with the microprocessing, in macroprocessing the readers summarize the main or the key idea by selecting the most important details or information and delete the unimportant ones. When the readers read a text the reader will connect the new information with the reader’s prior knowledge. Besides, the readers will also make an inference out of the point that is described within the text. For example, in the two sentences above, the readers may not know John is afraid of what. By making an inference the readers will predict that John may afraid of ghost. When making inference the readers may draw information that is provided in the earlier text or the readers experience, and it is knows as elaborative processing.


[1] Judi Moreillon. Collaburative Strategies for Teaching Reading Comprehension: Maximazing Your Impact. American Library association. United State of America. 2007. p. 10

[2] Jannate K. Klingner, et.al. Teaching Reading Comprehension to Students with Learning Difficulties. The Guilfordpress. New York. 2007. P. 2

[3] Emalia Iragiliati, et.al. Reading 2. Universitas Terbuka. Jakarta. 2007. p. 4.1

[4] Judi Moreillon. Op.cit. p 19

[5] Ibid. p.10

[6] Ibid. p.11

[7] Ibid. p.39

[8] Ibid

[9] Ibid. p.60

[10] Jannate K. Klingner, et.al. Op.Cit. p. 8

[11] Ibid. p.9

[12] Ibid. p.10

[13] Ibid. p.11

What is Syntax?? Let’s Learn it more!

Syntax is the structure of individual sentences.[1] Syntax is how a group of words build a phrase and a sentence.[2] In other word, it can be said that syntax is about the rule of sentence construction. It is about how sentences are constructed by a group of words, a group of phrases, or may be clauses.[3]  Therefore, it can be define that syntax is the rule or principle that govern sentences, clause, or phrase structure.

 

a. Phrase

Phrase is a unit that is functional within the sentence.[4] It is formed by head word and modifier that group together. Therefore, it can be defined that phrase is a group of word that functional in the sentence and consist of head and its modifier. The head is the most important element within the phrase.[5] There are two reasons why the head becomes the most important word within the phrase. The first, the head becomes the important semantic meaning information. Second, the head within the phrase determines the meaning of the entire phrase.[6] In other word, the head controls the other word within the phrase that is called by modifier.

A head may have more than one modifier or may have no modifier.[7]

In other word, a phrase can be only grouped by a single head or a head with its modifier. It may have one or more than one modifier. The example bellow will make it clearly to be understood.

1)      Children like ice cream very much.

2)      A very bright sun flower was planted in the front of Tina’s house.

3)      He runs very fast.

4)      The girl played with her doll.

Based on the example above, one of the phrases is only formed by one head without modifier. The word of “children” in (1) has no modifier that gives more information who “children” is. In other hand, the phrases within the sentences (2,3, and 4) have one or more than one modifier. The phrase of a very bright sun flower is headed by sun flower. It is called by noun phrase because sun flower is a noun. The phrase of very fast in the sentence (3) has one head and one modifier. Fast is an adjective that becomes the head of the phrase. Therefore, it is called by adjective phrase.

1)      Kind of Phrase

a)      Noun Phrase

It has been stated above that phrase is formed by a group of word and its modifier. Within the phrase, the head word control the modifier and the modifier give more information about the head word. A noun phrase might have five phrase elements or might be just a head word.[8] Those phrase elements are head, complement, attribute, adjunct, and specifier.[9] Bellow is the example of the noun phrase:

(1)   Students ask the teacher about the final assignment.

(2)   The boy is singings on the stage.

(3)   The naughty boy was punished by his father.

(4)   The news on the death of the famous artist was available.

(5)   The tall man in black jacket was over there for a long time.

(6)   The handsome English teacher with mustache is sick.

               Based on the example above, the word “students” in (1) is only consists of one head without modifier. “The boy” in the sentence (2) is the noun phrase that consists of one head and specifier as the modifier. The naughty boy in the sentence (3) consists of specifier, attribute, and the head phrase. A noun usually takes certain phrase categories as the attribute.[10] In other word, a noun phrase is headed by a noun and it has an attribute as its modifier. Several categories of phrase attribute are adjective phrase and verb phrase. The example is “the blue sky” and “the singing bird”. “The blue sky” takes an adjective phrase as its attribute and “the singing bird” takes a verb phrase as its attribute.

The noun phrase in the example (4) consists of specifier, the head, and complement. A complement is a noun phrase that is selected by the head and it has a close relationship with the head.[11] The news on the death of the famous artist takes a preposition phrase that is headed by preposition on as its complement. Just like a transitive verb, the preposition on in the example (4) must have a noun phrase as the complement. The other example is inside the house. Inside is transitive and it has noun phrase “the house” as the complement.

Meanwhile, the example (6) consists of specifier, attribute, complement, the head, and adjunct. Different with complement, adjunct is the extra information of the head and it has no particular relationship with the head.[12] Adjunct gives additional information like appearance, location or manner in which some thing was done.[13] In other word, the adjunct has a function to give extra or more information about the head such as time, location, or manner.

 

b)      Adjective phrase

Adjective phrase is a phrase that has an adjective as the head      and it may only consist of single adjective or may consist of complete elements.[14] Like a noun phrase, an adjective phrase can also have a complement, attribute, and adjunct. The complement of the adjective phrase can be a preposition phrase, noun phrase, or to-infinitive verb. A complement is the element that is selected to complete the meaning of the head.[15]

In addition, a complement in adjective phrase has a close relationship with the head and it cannot be separated.[16] In other word, if the complement of the adjective phrase is separated, the sentence will be unacceptable. Bellow is the example of the adjective phrase using complement. The word in bold will show the adjective phrase.

(1)   Mr. John is angry with the students.

(2)   Jenny was very different from her mother.

(3)   John F Kennedy is ambitious to be a president.

Based on the examples above, (1) and (2) use preposition phrases as the complement of the adjective phrases. Meanwhile, (3) uses to-infinitive verb as the complements. Since the complement has a close relationship with the head, therefore it will be unacceptable if the complement separated from the head. It is shown in the example bellow.

(1)   *With the students, Mr. John is angry.

(2)   * From her mother, Jenny was very different.

(3)   *To be a president, John F Kennedy is ambitious.

The examples above show that if the complement of the phrase separated from the head, it will be unacceptable sentence.

In addition to complement, the adjective phrase can also take an attribute and adjunct. Just like the noun phrase above, the attribute shows characteristics of the head. Adjunct in other hand gives more specific information for the head. Bellow is the example of the adjective phrase using attribute and adjunct.

(1)   John was angry in the meeting.

(2)   His car is very expensive.

Based on the example above, angry in (1) has in the meeting as the adjunct. It gives more specific information about the head that is where he angry was. Besides, the word expensive in (b) gives characteristic for the head.

 

c)      Verb Phrase

Verb phrase is a phrase that has a verb as its head and it is categorized in to three classes, they are full, linking, and auxiliary verb.[17] Just like a noun phrase and adjective phrase, the verb phrase can be only a single verb or take some elements such as complement, attribute and adjunct.

A verb phrase usually takes a noun phrase, preposition phrase, and clause as the complement. Bellow is the example of the verb phrase with complement.

(1)   He drives a car.

(2)   Tom is waiting for his mother.

(3)   I believe that he will be able to pass the test.

In addition to complement, a verb phrase may also have an attribute in its structure.[18] Besides, a verb phrase may also have an adjunct that has a function to give information about the time, place, and manner of the action that verb expresses.[19] In other word, a verb phrase is not only consisting of a single verb or complement but it may also consist of attribute and adjunct. Bellow is the example.

(1)   He drives.

(2)   He drives a car.

(3)   Lucy usually read a book in the library.

Based on the example above, it shows that the verb phrase  may only consist of single verb like in (1), consist of a complement like in (2), or consist of attribute, complement, and adjunct.

 

b. Clause and Sentence

A clause is a group of word which minimum contains of verb and complement, but it may also contain of a single verb, its complement, and its adjunct.[20] An ideal clause may contain a phrase that refers to an action, refers to people that involves to the action or state, or may refers to time and place of the action.[21] It means that a clause minimum contains of one verb or predicate but it is not may only a verb. It may also contain a phrase or other clause that modify the verb its self.

Linguistics divides sentence into two central parts, they are the subject and the predicate.[22] In the clause, predicate has a function to express an event within the clause. The term of clause refers to sentence that become the fundamental element of other sentence or phrase.[23] In other word, a fundamental element of clause or sentence may coordinate with one or more than one fundamental element of sentence or clause to form a compound or complex sentence. Therefore, a simple sentence contains only one clause and a complex sentence contains at least two clauses.

A sentence is a statement, exclamation, or question that is formed by a group of words or phrases.[24] It has been stated above that a sentence that contains of one clause is known as simple sentence and complex sentence in the other hand contains of more than one sentence. Simple means that consisting of one sentence and complex in the other hand means that consisting of more than one clauses. Bellow is the example of the clause and sentence.

  1. Those men like potato chips.
  2. My friend though that I claimed that my sister likes potato chips.

Based on the example above, the simple sentence in (a) contains of one clause and it is known as independent sentence or clause. Simple sentence or clause is not attached to the other sentence or clause. That is why it is called by independent sentence or clause. The example (b) in other hand is called by complex sentence. It contains of more than one clause. The bold word in example above is called sub-coordinate conjunction. It is used to join together every single string of simple sentence.[25] The complex sentence above has one main clause and two (more than one) subordinate clauses. The term of main clause and subordinate clause indicate that the clauses do not have the same function within the sentence.[26] The subordinate clause is contained within the main clause. In other word, it is syntactically dependent on the main clause. Therefore, the subordinate clause is a part of the main clause.


[1] Raphael Salkie. Op.cit. p. ix

[2] Maggie Tallerman. Understanding Syntax: Second Edition. Hodder Education: London. 2005. p. 1

[3] Jim Miller. An Introduction to English Syntax. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh. 2002. p. xii

[4] Mark Newson, et.al. Basic English Syntax with exercises. 2006. p.57

[5] Maggie Tallerman. Loc.cit. p.95

[6] Ibid

[7] Jim Miller. Loc.cit. p.1

[8] B.B Dwijatmiko. 2002. English Syntaxt. Sanata Dharma University Press: Yogyakarta. P.10

[9] Ibid

[10] Ibid

[11] Maggie Tallerman, Op.Cit. p.98

[12] Ibid, p.98

[13] Ibid

[14] BB. Dwijatmiko. Op.Cit. p. 22

[15] Ibid

[16] Ibid, p.22

[17] Ibid. p.37

[18] Ibid. p 47

[19] Ibid

[20]Jim Miller, Op.Cit. p 6

[21] Ibid

[22] Maggie Tallerman, Op.cit. p.58

[23] Herman Wekker and Liliane Haegman. 2004. A Modern Course in English Syntax.Taylor and Francis e-Library. P. 29

[24] Emalia Iragiliati, et.al. Reading 2. Universitas Terbuka: Jakarta. 2007. p.1.1

[25] Maggie Tallerman. Op.cit. p.77

[26] Ibid

Berbagi Ilmu : Perangkat Bahasa Inggris SMA XI berkarakter dan taksonomi

Assalamu’alaikum wr wb…

Bismillahirrahmaanirrahiim, kali ini ane pengen coba bagi perangkat pembelajaran ane pribadi pada semua pembaca yang mungkin membutuhkannya. Yups.. penulis pengen kasih perangkat bahasa inggris untuk sma kelas XI berkarakter dan bertaksonomi. Ya… semoga dapat berguna bagi temen-temen guru yang membutuhkan. Amiin.. file nya dijadikan dalam satu file zip.

 

Klik link dbawah ini untuk download:

Perangkat Bahasa Inggris SMA kelas XI Berkarakter dan taksonomi

 

Semoga bermanfaat ya…

English Implicature

Dah lama banget rasanya ga ngebl0g….

But, it’s never mind. Okay.. hari ni pengen berbagi sedikit ilmu tentang implicature. Apa dan bagaimana ya implicature itu? yuk sama-sama kita simak definisi-definisi berikut ini…..!

žAn implicature is anything that is inferred from an utterrance but that is not a condition for the truth of the utterance.
žAn implicature is something meant, implied, or suggested distinct from what is said.
žImplicatures can be part of sentence meaning or dependent on conversational context, and can be conventional or unconventional
žImplicature:Inferences over and above the

truth-conditional content

žImpliciture, however, is a matter of saying something but communicating something else instead, something closely related to what is said
Dari definisi tersebut, dapat disimpulkan bahwa implicature adalah ungkapan yang diugkapakan tetapi tidak secara langsung mengungkapkan dengan sebenarnya. Biasanya terjadi dalam percakapan.
terdapat beberapa jenis implicature, diantaranya adalah:
1. Conversational implicature;
2. dan Convensional implicature.
Conversational implicature adalah implikasi-implikasi yang banyak terjadi dalam konteks percakapan. Simaklah contoh-contoh berikut:
žA: How is C getting along in his new job at the bank?
žB: Oh, quite well, I think; he likes his colleagues, and he hasn’t been to prison yet.
žWhat B implied, suggested, or meant is distinct from what B said. All B said was that C had not been to prison yet.
Contoh lain..

 

v  A           : How did you like the guest speaker?

B           : Well, I am sure he was speaking English.

What B implied or meant is that the content of speaker’s speech is very confusing, it makes B don’t understand.

v  A           : Where is Mr. Ashuri?

B           : He is either in the canteen or in the Mr. Dedi’s room.

What B meant is that B wants not give ambiguous or false information, that the speaker does not have the evidence to give a specific location where he believes Mr. Ashuri is.

v  A           : Will Michel be at the meeting this afternoon?

B           : Her car broke down.

What B implemented or meant is that Michel will not come to the meeting, because she got some troubles with her car, or Michel may come late to the meeting.

v  A           : Will you come to the John’s graduation ceremony?

B           : If I were not sick, I would come there.

What B meant is that B will not come to the John’s graduation ceremony because B is sick.

v  A           : I would rather my brother go home now.

What A meant is that her brother doesn’t go home now.

v  A           : Will you go to the party?

B           : If only I were healthy, I would be able to go the party.

What B meant is that B is not healthy, so B is not able to go to the party.

v  A           : Do you know where I can get some gas?

B           : There is a gas station around the corner.

What B implemented or meant is that the gas station is open and someone can probably get the gas there.

v  Mrs. Rosita acts as if she were a rich woman.

It means that she is not a rich woman.

v  Even if Dona runs quickly, she won’t catch the bus.

It means that Dona will never catch the bus, because it is very fast.

v  A           : Can you tell me the time?

B           : Well, the milk man has come.

In this short conversation, A asks time to B, but B gives answer indirectly. It indicates that B may also not know the accurate time, but B is in fact giving a rough time.

v  A           : Mr. Joe is really an old bag.

B           : The weather has been quite delightful this summer, hasn’t it?

What be implemented, suggested, or meant is that A has said is too rude, so it means that the topic must be change.

v  A           : Has Mike got a girl friend?

B           : He has been making a lot of trips to Malaysia lately.

What B implied or meant is that B believe that Mike may have a girl friend in Malaysia.

v  A           : Where is Peter?

B           : The light in his office is on.

What B implied or suggested or meant is that Peter is in office.

v  A           : If you don’t mind, would you accompany me going to hospital?

B           : Oh sure, but I have much homework today.

What B implied or suggested or meant is that he cannot accompany A to go to hospital.

v  John and Bill have not met for 15 years. Now they meet in the restaurant and order their favorite food.

John: you are still old Bill.

What John implied or meant is that Bill is never change.

Conventional implicature is part of the meaning of a word or construction but not part of its truth-conditions.

Perhatikan contoh-contoh berikut!

 

  • Joe is poor but happy

Assertion: Joe is poor

The implicature is that not all of poor people are happy.

This sentence implies poverty and happiness are not compatible but in spite of this Joe is still happy. The word of “but” create implicature of sense of contrast.

 

  • Alfie is a baby, but he is quite.

The truth is that Alfie is baby. Then, the implicature is that babies are not usually quite.

  • Bill is still swimming.

Assertion: Bill is swimming

The implicature is that Bill was swimming earlier.

  • John is Englishman but cowardly

Assertion: John is English and John is cowardly

The implicature is that John is being cowardly is unexpected given his being an Englishman.

  • Michael is Englishman, he is, therefore, brave

Assertion: Michael is English and Michael is brave.

The implicature is that John’s being brave is a consequence his being an Englishman.

  • Mike can read German. Moreover, he can write poems in this language.

Assertion: Mike can read German and Mike can write poems in this language

The Implicature is that the word “German” means a language (German Language). Therefore, besides mike can read a text in German language he is also able to write a poem in German language.

  • He is a Chinese, he therefore uses chopsticks.

Assertion: He is Chinese and he uses chopsticks

The implicature: using chopsticks is Chinese habit when they were eating.

  • Mary is taking Chinese cookery lessons. So her husband has bought her a wok.

Mary takes Chinese cookery lessons and her husband has bought her a wok.

Implicature: Buying a wok is the consequence for him when Mary is taking Chinese cookery lesson.

  • Mr. Smith leaved his office at 06.00 pm, and Gina leaved her office late too.

Leaving office at 06.00 pm is late to leave some works in the office, because the time work for an employee is end at 05.00 pm.

  • Marry manage to answer her young sister question.

Assertion: Marry answers her young sister question.

Implicature: Marry found difficulty in answering her young sister question.

  • Joko is a Javanese person who has lived in America for 15 years; however he was not forgetting his native language.

Assertion: Joko has lived in America for 15 years and he was not forgetting his native language.

Implicature: Joko is still able to speak Javanese although he has been 15 years in America.

Sekian dulu ya… semoga menambah sedikit wawasan anda tentang bahasa Inggris. ^_^

Some Approaches of Language Teaching

1. WHAT IS APPROACH?

Approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language and the nature of language learning and teaching.[1] In addition, Approach is the level at which assumption and beliefs about language, language learning, and language teaching. According to Anthony’s model, Approach is the level at which assumption and beliefs about language and language learning is specified.[2]

Base on the statements above, Approach relates to the assumptions and beliefs in language, language learning and teaching. In language teaching, people have different agreement in assumption and belief. Therefore, there are some approaches base on people belief and assumption in language teaching. Those assumptions and beliefs are supported by the theory of the expert in language, language teaching and learning. In other word, Approach refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that serves as the source of practices and principles in language teaching.

2. LINGUIST AND PSYCHOLOGIST VIEWS

A.     Classical Behaviorism by Pavlov

In the 20th century, Ivan Pavlov, the psychologist from Russia conducted a research by training a dog trough a procedure that he called as classical conditioning. In his researched, Pavlov trained a dog to dripping it saliva following the sound of bell. Then he called the response of the dog as unconditioned response. Then, in his researched, he used the smell of meat, until the dog got the conditioned response. In the term of human learning, when someone doesn’t give a correct response to a stimulus, it is called by unconditional response. Meanwhile, when someone gives a correct response, it is called by conditional response. In conclusion, in the classical behavior, the term of teaching and learning are conducted by giving a stimulus and giving a response.

 

B.     Operant Conditioning Skinner

In the book titled verbal behavior (1959), Skinner captures the essence of the behaviorist approach to language. Language is not mental phenomenon: It is behavior, like other forms of human behavior. It is learnt by process of habit-formation.[3]

BF. Skinner with his Operant Conditioning wants to try explaining a part of human learning and human behavior. In operant conditioning, someone behavior can be operant or respondent. Operant is the classes of response, while someone behavior causes a response from the other people it is called by operant. The example of this phenomenon is when a baby cries then it causes the baby’s mother gives him a breast or milk, it is called by operant. While, respondent is a set of response that is induced by recognized stimulus. If someone behavior is a response of a stimulus it is called by respondent. The example is a boy that is punched by his friend, feel hurt and then cry. If he cries because of the punch and hurt, it is called by respondent.

Operant and respondent common happen in language teaching and learning. In the class room, there are usually some smart students and some weak students. Respondent commonly happen when the teacher asks the students a question then one of the smart students answer it. While the weak students usually just be quiet, or give no response. If the behavior of weak students causes the teacher gives them extra time to learn, it can be called by operant. Because, the weak student’s behavior causes the teacher gives them extra time for learning.

In addition to operant and respondent, skinner also proposes reward and punishment in the Language learning. According to skinner reward and punishment have a strong influence in the teaching and learning success. Reward tends to increase students motivation in learning. But, punishment is usually harming the students. Punishment doesn’t build student behavior well. And it usually makes the students lost his motivation to learn.

In the term of punishment, skinner offers a way out that punishment is better to be erased. Skinner offers to change the punishment with giving motivation or suggestion. Motivation and suggestion will build student’s behavior well. Therefore, if the students cannot answer the teacher question, the teacher should not give the students punishment. In other hand, the teacher must give them motivation that can make them repair their mistake.

In 1993, Omaggio Hadley summarized the characteristics of behaviorism approach as follow:

  1. Human learning and animal learning are similar;
  2. All behavior is viewed as a response to stimuli;
  3. The mind of the student is tabula-rasa;
  4. Conditioning involves the strengthening of association between a stimulus and response through the reinforcement;
  5. Human language is a sophisticated response system acquired through operant conditioning.[4]

 

C.     Subsumption Ausubel

David Ausubel states that language learning happens through a meaningful process which is connected between the new knowledge or experience and existing knowledge or experience. In his theory, Ausubel emphasize mental structure or organization. Therefore, the focus of human learning is not stimulus-response bonds but mental events. This theory is the opposite of behaviorist theory in which emphasizes human learning on Habit-formation.

The cognitive theory that is proposed by Ausubel can be understood by contrasting rote learning and meaningful learning. Rote learning is recalling items without connecting it with a system or existing cognitive data. While, meaningful learning is studying new knowledge by integrating and importing it in the contextual system in to existing knowledge. Meaningful learning only happens when the new knowledge or experience can be integrated in to existing knowledge by the learners. In other word, it is not be able to be conducted if the learners have no previous knowledge or experience that related to the new knowledge.

In the rote learning, knowledge acquisition and experience acquisition are treated as separated units that are randomly integrated in the cognitive system. Therefore, rote learning involves a performance of memorizing items that are not related to the existing cognitive units.

Meanwhile, meaningful learning can be applied as a process of connecting and integrating between new knowledge or experience and the existing knowledge or experience. In this kind of learning, while the new knowledge and experience entering cognitive field, it will interact with, and be integrated appropriately to the broader conceptual system.

In addition to rote and meaningful learning, Ausubel also proposes that forget is systematic. In this matter, he states that forget in the meaningful learning is more intended rather than forget in the rote learning. It is because in the meaningful learning, the learners are integrated new knowledge with existing knowledge. While in the rote learning, the learners only perform memorizing items that are not related to the existing knowledge in the learner’s cognitive field.

Ausubel states that in the term of meaningful learning, forget are the second step after integrating new knowledge with the existing knowledge. In the forgetting step, the specific items are not considered as separated items but it is considered as integrated items. Therefore, the specific and separated concept of knowledge will be integrated become a broader concept of knowledge.

In other word, this approach shows that in language teaching process the teacher must be able to integrate the student’s new knowledge or experience and their recent knowledge or experience.

 

D.    Humanistic Psychologist Rogers

Carl Rogers is not considered as a psychologist of learning but he gives a big influence to the learning concept understanding. In his classical concept of client-centered therapy, he analyzes and explains human behavior and process of learning. This view brings important implication to the education system.

In his concept, Rogers states that students have full participation in the teaching and learning process. He tends to avoid teaching and substitute it by learning. Therefore, the most important one is learning how to learning. In this case the enable of students becomes very important in the learning process. Students are not anymore considered as a listener but as intact individual that must be involved in whole aspect of learning. In conclusion, all activities and learning materials in the class must use subsumption context, and all students involved in the process of learning and finding solution in the problem of learning.


[1] Jack C Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers. No Year. Approaches and Methods in language teaching. Cambridge University Press. P. 19.

[2] Ibid. P 19.

[3] Hery Yufrizal, MA, Ph.D. 2008. An Introduction to second Language Acquisition (A Text book for ESL Learners and English Teacher). Bandung: Penerbit Pustaka Reka Cipta. Page 43

[4] Hery Yufrizal, MA, Ph.D. Cop. Cit. Page 44.

 

Further Reading

 

H. Douglas Brown. 2001. Teaching by Principles an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy Second Addition. San Francisco State University.

H. Douglas Brown. 2007. Prinsip Pembelajaran dan Pengajaran Bahasa Edisi V. Pearson Education

Hery Yufrizal, MA, Ph.D. 2008. An Introduction to second Language Acquisition (A Text book for ESL Learners and English Teacher). Bandung: Penerbit Pustaka Reka Cipta.

Jack C Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers. No Year. Approaches and Methods in language teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Smith, M. K. (1999) ‘Learning theory’, the encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/biblio/b-learn.htm

Sameness and Similarity, Comparatives

1. Sameness and Similarity

Sameness and similarity are often used to express the similarity of two different things. It usually a noun and adjective. There are three formulas in sameness and similarities, they are:

1. Like or the same as

2. the same + noun + as

3. as + adjective + as

Bellow is the example of the sameness and similarity:

1. Andy’s car is like as mine or Andy’s car is the same as mine.

the word of “like” can stand as “verb” and “adjective”. When it is followed by “verb be” it means that like is an “adjective”. In addition to the word of “like”, it has similar meaning with “the same”. So, it doesn’t matter whether you want to use “Like” ore “The same”.

2. Dina is the same age as Billy. or That building is the same High as my house.

3. Windy is as beautiful as Janet. or Mike is as cleaver as John. The form of this example usually compare an adjective as the similar thing.

 

2. Comparative

Comparative describes the form of an adjective or adverb that expresses an increase in quality, quantity, or degree. It usually compare an adjective or an adverb e.g. “quick – quicker” or “importantly – more importantly”. In the of comparative, if the word that is compared only has one syllable, it should be added suffix “-er” in the end of the word. Example, “tall – taller”. And if it is ended by “-y” it should be changed by “i” before adding “-er”, example “happy – happier”

Most two and three syllable adjective use “more” to compare two adjective words, example: beautiful – more beautiful.

If the words that are compared are added by “most” for two or three syllable and “-est” for one syllable adjective, it called by superlative. example beautiful, more beautiful and the most beautiful or busy, busier, and the busiest. Don’t forget to add “the” when using superlative form in a sentence.

Some adjectives have irregular comparative form. Therefore they are to be memorized in order to apply it correctly, Example, good, better, the best or bad, worse, and the worst.