English Implicature

Dah lama banget rasanya ga ngebl0g….

But, it’s never mind. Okay.. hari ni pengen berbagi sedikit ilmu tentang implicature. Apa dan bagaimana ya implicature itu? yuk sama-sama kita simak definisi-definisi berikut ini…..!

žAn implicature is anything that is inferred from an utterrance but that is not a condition for the truth of the utterance.
žAn implicature is something meant, implied, or suggested distinct from what is said.
žImplicatures can be part of sentence meaning or dependent on conversational context, and can be conventional or unconventional
žImplicature:Inferences over and above the

truth-conditional content

žImpliciture, however, is a matter of saying something but communicating something else instead, something closely related to what is said
Dari definisi tersebut, dapat disimpulkan bahwa implicature adalah ungkapan yang diugkapakan tetapi tidak secara langsung mengungkapkan dengan sebenarnya. Biasanya terjadi dalam percakapan.
terdapat beberapa jenis implicature, diantaranya adalah:
1. Conversational implicature;
2. dan Convensional implicature.
Conversational implicature adalah implikasi-implikasi yang banyak terjadi dalam konteks percakapan. Simaklah contoh-contoh berikut:
žA: How is C getting along in his new job at the bank?
žB: Oh, quite well, I think; he likes his colleagues, and he hasn’t been to prison yet.
žWhat B implied, suggested, or meant is distinct from what B said. All B said was that C had not been to prison yet.
Contoh lain..

 

v  A           : How did you like the guest speaker?

B           : Well, I am sure he was speaking English.

What B implied or meant is that the content of speaker’s speech is very confusing, it makes B don’t understand.

v  A           : Where is Mr. Ashuri?

B           : He is either in the canteen or in the Mr. Dedi’s room.

What B meant is that B wants not give ambiguous or false information, that the speaker does not have the evidence to give a specific location where he believes Mr. Ashuri is.

v  A           : Will Michel be at the meeting this afternoon?

B           : Her car broke down.

What B implemented or meant is that Michel will not come to the meeting, because she got some troubles with her car, or Michel may come late to the meeting.

v  A           : Will you come to the John’s graduation ceremony?

B           : If I were not sick, I would come there.

What B meant is that B will not come to the John’s graduation ceremony because B is sick.

v  A           : I would rather my brother go home now.

What A meant is that her brother doesn’t go home now.

v  A           : Will you go to the party?

B           : If only I were healthy, I would be able to go the party.

What B meant is that B is not healthy, so B is not able to go to the party.

v  A           : Do you know where I can get some gas?

B           : There is a gas station around the corner.

What B implemented or meant is that the gas station is open and someone can probably get the gas there.

v  Mrs. Rosita acts as if she were a rich woman.

It means that she is not a rich woman.

v  Even if Dona runs quickly, she won’t catch the bus.

It means that Dona will never catch the bus, because it is very fast.

v  A           : Can you tell me the time?

B           : Well, the milk man has come.

In this short conversation, A asks time to B, but B gives answer indirectly. It indicates that B may also not know the accurate time, but B is in fact giving a rough time.

v  A           : Mr. Joe is really an old bag.

B           : The weather has been quite delightful this summer, hasn’t it?

What be implemented, suggested, or meant is that A has said is too rude, so it means that the topic must be change.

v  A           : Has Mike got a girl friend?

B           : He has been making a lot of trips to Malaysia lately.

What B implied or meant is that B believe that Mike may have a girl friend in Malaysia.

v  A           : Where is Peter?

B           : The light in his office is on.

What B implied or suggested or meant is that Peter is in office.

v  A           : If you don’t mind, would you accompany me going to hospital?

B           : Oh sure, but I have much homework today.

What B implied or suggested or meant is that he cannot accompany A to go to hospital.

v  John and Bill have not met for 15 years. Now they meet in the restaurant and order their favorite food.

John: you are still old Bill.

What John implied or meant is that Bill is never change.

Conventional implicature is part of the meaning of a word or construction but not part of its truth-conditions.

Perhatikan contoh-contoh berikut!

 

  • Joe is poor but happy

Assertion: Joe is poor

The implicature is that not all of poor people are happy.

This sentence implies poverty and happiness are not compatible but in spite of this Joe is still happy. The word of “but” create implicature of sense of contrast.

 

  • Alfie is a baby, but he is quite.

The truth is that Alfie is baby. Then, the implicature is that babies are not usually quite.

  • Bill is still swimming.

Assertion: Bill is swimming

The implicature is that Bill was swimming earlier.

  • John is Englishman but cowardly

Assertion: John is English and John is cowardly

The implicature is that John is being cowardly is unexpected given his being an Englishman.

  • Michael is Englishman, he is, therefore, brave

Assertion: Michael is English and Michael is brave.

The implicature is that John’s being brave is a consequence his being an Englishman.

  • Mike can read German. Moreover, he can write poems in this language.

Assertion: Mike can read German and Mike can write poems in this language

The Implicature is that the word “German” means a language (German Language). Therefore, besides mike can read a text in German language he is also able to write a poem in German language.

  • He is a Chinese, he therefore uses chopsticks.

Assertion: He is Chinese and he uses chopsticks

The implicature: using chopsticks is Chinese habit when they were eating.

  • Mary is taking Chinese cookery lessons. So her husband has bought her a wok.

Mary takes Chinese cookery lessons and her husband has bought her a wok.

Implicature: Buying a wok is the consequence for him when Mary is taking Chinese cookery lesson.

  • Mr. Smith leaved his office at 06.00 pm, and Gina leaved her office late too.

Leaving office at 06.00 pm is late to leave some works in the office, because the time work for an employee is end at 05.00 pm.

  • Marry manage to answer her young sister question.

Assertion: Marry answers her young sister question.

Implicature: Marry found difficulty in answering her young sister question.

  • Joko is a Javanese person who has lived in America for 15 years; however he was not forgetting his native language.

Assertion: Joko has lived in America for 15 years and he was not forgetting his native language.

Implicature: Joko is still able to speak Javanese although he has been 15 years in America.

Sekian dulu ya… semoga menambah sedikit wawasan anda tentang bahasa Inggris. ^_^

12 thoughts on “English Implicature

  1. kalau kata-kata khusus sepertinya tidak…. yang jelas kalau implicature itu mau mengungkapkan sesuatu tetapi tidak langsung diungkapkan.. misal. Nanti mau kepesta gak? dijawab.. waduh saya lagi ada kerjaan. Maksudnya saya ga bisa dateng. nah itu yang disebut dengan implicature.

    1. Misal dalam bahasa Indonesia contohnya gini…

      Joni berusaha menutup pintu kamarnya.
      Maknanya: Joni memutup pintu kamarnya.
      Implicature nya: Pintunya susah untuk ditutup.

      Mary adalah seorang pengemis, tapi dia kaya.
      Implicaturenya: Biasa nya pengemis itu miskin, susah dipercaya lau pengemis itu kaya.

  2. hal-hal kayak gini sering banget kita temui masyarakat Jawa, bsa-basinya sangat beragam… orang yg gak biasa mungkin bakal bingung
    misal mau pinjam uang terkadang bilangnya gini ama temenya “aku mau makan tapi gak ada uang”

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s